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## Reflective modular forms and applications

The reflective modular forms of orthogonal type are fundamental automorphic objects generalizing the classical Dedekind eta-function. This article describes two methods for constructing such modular forms in terms of Jacobi forms: automorphic products and Jacobi lifting. In particular, it is proved that the first non-zero Fourier–Jacobi coefficient of the Borcherds modular form Φ12 (the generating function of the so-called Fake Monster Lie Algebra) in any of the 23 one-dimensional cusps coincides with the Kac–Weyl denominator function of the affine algebra of the root system of the corresponding Niemeier lattice. This article gives a new simple construction of the automorphic discriminant of the moduli space of Enriques surfaces as a Jacobi lifting of the product of eight theta-functions and considers three towers of reflective modular forms. One of them, the tower of D8, gives a solution to a problem of Yoshikawa (2009) concerning the construction of Lorentzian Kac–Moody algebras from the automorphic discriminants connected with del Pezzo surfaces and analytic torsions of Calabi–Yau manifolds. The article also formulates some conditions on sublattices, making it possible to produce families of ‘daughter’ reflective forms from a fixed modular form. As a result, nearly 100 such functions are constructed here. Bibliography: 77 titles.

In this paper we consider Jacobi forms of half-integral index for any positive definite lattice L (classical Jacobi forms from the book of Eichler and Zagier correspond to the lattice A_1=<2>). We give a lot of examples of Jacobi forms of singular and critical weights for root systems using Jacobi theta-series. We describe the Jacobi lifting for Jacobi forms of half-integral indices. In some case it gives additive lifting construction of new reflective modular forms.

In this paper we consider moduli spaces of polarized and numerically polarized Enriques surfaces. The moduli spaces of numerically polarized Enriques surfaces can be described as open subsets of orthogonal modular varieties of dimension 10. One of the consequences of our description is that there are only finitely many isomorphism classes of moduli spaces of polarized and numerically polarized Enriques surfaces. We use modular forms to prove for a number of small degrees that the Kodaira dimension of the moduli space of numerically polarized Enriques surfaces is negative. Finally we prove that there are infinitely many polarizatons for which the moduli space of numerically polarized Enriques surfaces is birational to the moduli space of unpolarized Enriques surfaces with a level 2 structure.

A strongly reflective modular form with respect to an orthogonal group of signature (2,n) determines a Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebra. We find a new geometric application of such modular forms: we prove that if the weight is larger than n then the corresponding modular variety is uniruled. We also construct new reflective modular forms and thus provide new examples of uniruled moduli spaces of lattice polarised K3 surfaces. Finally we prove that the moduli space of Kummer surfaces associated to (1,21)-polarised abelian surfaces is uniruled.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.