Галантное наречие vs «дьявольский жаргон»: Полемика вокруг аристократического языка во французской культуре XVII века
The essay focuses on the debates concerning aristocratic language in the 17th century French culture – in the wake of the development of linguistic norms coined in the “official” dictionaries by the end of the century. Under the influence of Castiglione’s treatise “The Courtier”, Parisian salons (such as “the Blue chamber” of marquise de Rambouillet and “the Saturdays” of M. de Scudéry), starting with the 1610s, cultivated a specific gallant dialect marked by subtleness and metaphoric paraphrases that meant to distinguish it from the popular tongue. Already by mid 17th century, this “purified” salon language often associated with the jargon of “affected ladies” (les précieuses), had become a satirical target in the works of such writers as Molière, La Bruyère, Bouhours, etc. At the same time, the criticism of the salon-inspired “idioma” was itself part of the gallant aesthetics bearing on the unacceptability of “affection” as claimed by Castiglione. Thus, the pretentious salon idioma that influenced the development of the French linguistic norms due to the proclaimed demands of sophistication and elegance, was itself perceived as a dogmatic scheme imposing its rules on others in a totalitarian manner.