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## Reconsideration of a simple approach to quantile regression for panel data

This note discusses two errors in the approach proposed in Canay (2011) for constructing a computationally simple two-step estimator in a quantile regression model with quantile-independent fixed effects. Firstly, we show that Canay’s assumption about *n*/*T**s* → 0 for some *s* > 1 is not strong enough and can entail severe bias or even the non-existence of the limiting distribution for the estimator of the vector of coefficients. The condition *n*/*T* → 0 appears to be closer to the required set of restrictions. These problems are likely to cause incorrect inference in applied papers with large *n*/*T*, but the impact is less in applications with small *n*/*T*. In an attempt to improve Canay’s estimator, we propose a simple correction that may reduce the bias. The second error concerns the incorrect asymptotic standard error of the estimator of the constant term. We show that, contrary to Canay’s assumption, the within estimator has an influence function that is not i.i.d. and this affects inference. Moreover, the constant term is unlikely to be estimable at rate nT−−−√nT, so a different estimator may not be available. However, the issue concerning the constant term does not have an effect on slope coefficients. Finally, we give recommendations to practitioners and conduct a meta-review of applied papers that use Canay’s estimator.

A maiden attempt has been made to study India's first offshore LIDAR-based wind profiling at Gulf of Khambhat. Both time series and panel data are used to derive the study conclusions. Quantile and panel analysis of the wind profiling done and based on that study finds interesting results. Study finds that wind characteristics are not constant over the quantiles and even change the polarisation. Study also concludes that wind dispersion is highly positively related to the wind speed. Finally, study concludes that there is no cross-sectional (12 sectors: 40 to 200 m) random effect. Study findings have high policy implications.

The effect of financial and economic ctarises depends on bank technology, which includes risk attitude and business model. The paper focuses on Japanese banking and examines how technology distinctions determined impact of the 2007–2009 global financial crisis and the economic recession that followed the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Assuming that different types of technology correspond to different cost quantiles, we use panel data quantile regressions to establish a link between efficiency, economies of scale/scope and the effects of the two crises. The analysis reveals technological heterogeneity and shows that the impact of profitability, non-traditional activities and non-performing loans in the two crises differs between high-cost and low-cost banks. Finally, we contrast the business models and risk-taking behavior of Japanese and European banks.

Students’ perception of the labor market makes a great deal in students’ decisions concerning effort to study, work during university studies, etc. The aim of the research is to define whether students identify significant returns on effort with respect to wage after graduation. Moreover, it seems reasonable to single out other factors that students expect to influence their wage significantly. With the use of the data of Russian students’ questionnaire conducted in 2012 within the framework of the Monitor of Economics of Education project the regressions with the use of instrumental variables and stochastic frontier approach are estimated. The results suggest effort is considered as an influential factor in determining wage by Russian students if students’ incomplete awareness about labor market is taken into account. Besides, university quality, abilities, wage received by working students, region, specialty, family’s income and gender make the difference in the amount of wage expected by students. For additional analysis the 20% and 80% quantile regressions are built. According to the results, persons having the highest wage forecasts base them on the amount of wage offered to working students on the labor market and do not correct them subject to their effort, university quality and abilities. At the same time another group of students, keeping similar basis for expectation formation as a previously analyzed group, expect significant contribution of effort and abilities.

Using changes in consumption as a proxy for ‘vulnerability’ we identify the characteristics associated with vulnerability around the time of the 1998 Russian financial crisis. In addition, we examine the role of formal and informal safety nets in preserving individual well being. We apply quantile regression techniques in order to identify the characteristics associated with vulnerability across the two periods. Amongst those most vulnerable during the crisis were, less educated individuals living in urban areas, in households containing greater numbers of pensioners. Furthermore, we found that increases in home production and help from relatives acted to decrease vulnerability, especially amongst those suffering the largest changes in consumption. Following the crisis, amongst the least vulnerable were, better educated individuals, resident in urban areas, able to increase home production, and in receipt of improved pension payments and child benefits.

The paper is focused on the measuring of return to education. This measure reflects the yield of investments in human capital. The analysis is based on estimation of the modified Mincer’s type equations by means of quantile regressions for panel data. Along with quantile regressions estimation we consider the models of the joint distribution of wage and education duration based on copulas. The methodological approach used in the study allows comparing the significance of the factors included in the model for the wage formation. Also it allows investigating the structure of the relationship between wage and education and answering the question devoted to the following dilemma – in which country return to education was higher after the decade of independent development.