Linking Academic Performance to Optimistic Attributional Style: Attributions Following Positive Events Matter Most
Optimistic attributional style has been shown to be reliably associated with high well-being and low depression (Hu et al. 2015). Via both a meta-analysis and two new studies, we examine the relationship between optimistic attributional style for explaining negative and positive events, and academic performance. In the meta-analysis, dispositions to make stable and global attributions for positive events were more strongly related to academic achievement (d = 0.21, k = 30, N = 6351) than dispositions to make unstable and local attributions regarding negative events (d = 0.11, k = 66, N = 11023). Academic level (primary school vs secondary school vs. university) and type of test (general vs. achievement-specific) were shown to moderate the associations. The two new studies were designed to address remaining questions. In both studies optimistic attributional style for positive events most reliably predicted student academic achievement, including boosted achievement over time. Possible explanations for the moderator effects are discussed, and recommendations for future research as well as practical recommendations are provided.
The existing findings on the relationship between optimism and academic performance are rather contradictory. Two studies were undertaken to investigate thе relationship between attributional style, well-being, and academic performance. A new Russian-language measure of attributional style for positive and negative events (Gordeeva, Osin, Shevyakhova, 2009) with stability, globality, and controllability subscales was used. In the first study, optimistic attributional style for good events was associated with higher academic achievement in high school students (N=225) and mediated the effect of academic performance on self-esteem. In the second study, pessimistic attributional style for negative events predicted success in passing three difficult written entrance examinations in university entrants (N=108), and optimistic attributional style for good events predicted success with success expectations as a mediator. The results indicate that attributional styles for positive and negative events are not uniform in their relationship to performance in different academic settings and to well-being variables.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов специальностей «Государственное и муниципальное управление», «Государственное управление и право», «Государственное управление и экономика», «Управление информационными ресурсами» «Управление и аналитика в государственном секторе». Пособие содержит обширный материал, необходимый для развития навыков академического чтения и письма на английском языке.
Задачей пособия является освоение академических навыков на основе специальных текстов, расширение и систематизация навыков академического письма, необходимых для написания курсовых работ и эссе на английском языке. Пособие содержит теоретический материал, примеры вополнения заданий, а также упражнения составлены на основе требований, предъявляемых к написанию научных работ на иностранном языке. В пособии предлагаются ссылки на научные сайты, аутентичные источники, включающие современные издания.
В целом пособие способствует повышению уровня иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции и направлено на формирование компетенций, необходимых для использования английского языка в учебной, научной, и профессиональной деятельности.
Материал апробирован в процессе обучения студентов НИУ ВШЭ Санкт-Петербург.
Пособие может быть использовано для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов. Пособие может быть полезно как студентам первокурсникам, так и студентам старших курсов вузов, а также широкому кругу лиц, изучающих английский язык.
In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools.
In this paper, we examined Budner’s (1962) intolerance of ambiguity scale with respect to its reliability and factor structure on a sample of 1082 Russian-speaking participants. The questionnaire demonstrated a two-factor structure and showed satisfactory internal consistency (reliability) and validity. We also report on a set of correlations between the questionnaire’s scale
Nowadays, combining work and study is typical for both low-income students and those who are well off. Such students have an array of reasons to start working, from the ambition to get integrated into the job market and build a career to the desire to fill their spare time. The paper investigates how different combinations of work and study affect academic performance of students in their final years in Tatarstan higher education institutions. The author analyzes results of the first phase of ‘Monitoring educational and employment trajectories of school and higher education institution graduates’, the longitudinal studies initiated by NRU HSE in 2009. Two factors — employment schedule and the extent to which employment corresponds with what is studied — have helped single out five types of combining work and study. Different combinations reveal different levels of academic performance, different plans for the future, and somewhat different motivation to enter higher education institutions. A regression analysis has shown that only one type of combining work and studies, non-professional full-time employment, has a negative effect on academic performance. The rest of the student employment strategies haven’t shown any statistically important effect on performance. All other conditions being equal, professionally employed students perform better than non-professionally employed ones, and sometimes even better than those who don’t work at all. The perfect choice for students is professional part-time employment, when work becomes an additional source of knowledge and motivation to learn.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.