Миграционная и инвестиционная активность жителей городов России на рынке жилья Москвы и Подмосковья
Drawing from the data on the home buyers’ addresses, we estimate the
purchasing activity of Russians in the primary real estate market of Moscow
metropolitan area (MMA) and compare it to their labor migration activity.
The objects of analysis are 149 cities and 80 «rests of regions». This article is the
first ever to examine the peculiarities of migration and investment behavior with
differentiation between cities and rural areas, between size classes of settlements
and individual large cities. Thus, the paper makes it possible to fill a gap
in assessing the mobility of the factors of production, namely capital and labor.
We reveal a sharp contrast between settlements of different sizes in terms of how
they interact with the metropolitan agglomeration. The bigger the settlement, the
less is the intensity of labor migration to the capital; the intensity is decreasing
in a rapid and monotonous manner. The activity of foreign buyers depending on
the population of the city where they reside varies non-mono tonously, with
a maximum for cities with a population of 250-500 thousand people in the real
estate market of Moscow and 100–500 thousand people in Moscow Oblast. For
MMA, small towns and rural areas (except for Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets
Autonomous Areas) are a source of labor resources while their buying activity
in the real estate market is weak. Cities with a population of over one million
practically do not create an inflow of labor migrants and show moderate activity
in the Moscow real estate market. Moscow Oblast interacts through labor
migration and housing acquisitions with smaller settlements than the «premium»
real estate and labor markets of Moscow. The attraction of Moscow Oblast is
rapidly decreasing with distance, extending to the first- and second-order
neighbors, while Moscow’s influence spreads throughout the country.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction