This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
This paper based on extensive survey analyzes relationships between Russian companies and the state in 2006–2010. As well as company characteristics, regional differences are also taken into account. Special focus is made on changes in relations due to world crisis and differences in relations with the state between industrial companies and enterprises from service sector. Regression analysis shows that in 2009–2010 relationship was built on “model of exchange” principle and the system was quite inert: even changes in GRP and investments’ level induced by crisis do not influence the probability of receiving government support. However, it was established that when allocating support the authorities take unemployment changes into consideration, which means that social factors matter.