Межстрановые различия производительности труда: роль капитала, уровня технологий и природной ренты
Using level accounting methodology this article examines sources of per capita GDP and labor productivity differences between Russia and developed and developing countries. Analysis concentrates on the assessment of role of the following determinants in per capita GDP gap: per hour labor productivity, number of hours worked per worker and labor-population ratio. It is shown that labor productivity difference is the main reason of Russia`s lagging behind. Factors of Russia`s low labor productivity are then estimated. It is found that 33-39% of 2.5-5-times labor productivity gap (estimated for non-oil sector) between Russia and developed countries (US, Canada, Germany, Norway) is explained by lower capital-to-labor ratio and the latter 58-65% of gap is due to lower technological level (multifactor productivity). Human capital level in Russia is almost the same as in developed countries, so it explains only 2-4% of labor productivity gap.