Межстрановые различия производительности труда: роль капитала, уровня технологий и природной ренты
Using level accounting methodology this article examines sources of per capita GDP and labor productivity differences between Russia and developed and developing countries. Analysis concentrates on the assessment of role of the following determinants in per capita GDP gap: per hour labor productivity, number of hours worked per worker and labor-population ratio. It is shown that labor productivity difference is the main reason of Russia`s lagging behind. Factors of Russia`s low labor productivity are then estimated. It is found that 33-39% of 2.5-5-times labor productivity gap (estimated for non-oil sector) between Russia and developed countries (US, Canada, Germany, Norway) is explained by lower capital-to-labor ratio and the latter 58-65% of gap is due to lower technological level (multifactor productivity). Human capital level in Russia is almost the same as in developed countries, so it explains only 2-4% of labor productivity gap.
The author compares the processes of economic development in the countries of the West and the East. The ratio in GDP growth, levels of per capita GDP both in the past and in the present time are analyzed. The article forecasts further development of Russia in whatever way (inertia, authoritarian or deepening of reforms) will elect the country.
This article discusses the use of public finance to reindustrialize Russian economy. The authors focus on the growing wear and tear of fixed assets, which damages the competitiveness of the Russian economy (even compared to other CIS economies). They show how a proper implementation of changes to corporate profits tax (CPT) may improve the situation and provide a calculation of CPT and VAT deduction in case of repair of fully depreciated fixed assets. They also prove that cost of repair of fully depreciated fixed assets should not be deducted for CPT purposes or affect the incoming deductible VAT.
The article presents analysis of the impact of human resource management systems (HRM) on the financial performance of banks operating in the Russian market. The sample includes 67 banks with different organizational characteristics (nationality of capital, ownership, lo-cation of the head office, number of years of operation in the Russian market). The research is based both on qualitative (a survey of heads of HR services of banks) and quantitative (analysis of financial statements of banks). Data were collected in the period from 2011 to 2015. Initially, the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of the HRM system (labor productivity and return on investment in human capital), as well as indicators of the financial performance of banks (return on assets and return on capital), were calculated. Further, with the help of the system of econometric equations, the impact of performance indicators of HRM systems on financial results of banks was determined. The study revealed that, on one hand, implementation of the functions of the HRM system does not have a positive impact on financial performance of the bank. At the same time, the impact of effects of some particular variables characterizing the HRM system itself (orientation on the strategic goals of the bank, the composition of the functions performed, the automation of functions, the flexibility and innovation of the HRM system, the amount of personnel costs) on performance of banks was revealed. So, the positive effect of the HRM system arises from its orientation towards the strategic goals of the bank, as well as with the use of electronic systems that automate the functions of HRM and thus improving the timing and quality of their implementation. Together, these variables, characterizing the HRM system, increase the return on investment in human capital. If the bank also achieves the flexibility and innovation of the HRM system, then labor productivity also increases. This, in turn, has a positive impact on the financial performance of banks.
This volume of scientific papers IEF RAS includes articles on a wide range of issues of theory and practice analysis and forecasting of national and regional economies and their sectors. The articles raise urgent problems of Russia’s socio-economic development: restoring of economic growth, increase in productivity, transition to a new technological level of production, improving the quality of RF citizens’ life. The book is addressed to researchers, economists, teachers, graduate students, students and readers interested in current and future socio-economic Russia’s problems.
The theoretical aproaches and new methods of analyses of labor produstivity dynamics in Russian regions is discussed.
The textbook covers two relevant and significant directions at the moment: lean production and labor productivity. The work highlights the basic concepts of labor productivity of the XIX century, the formation of the essence of labor productivity and the main tools aimed at improving it. The textbook also discusses the best Russian and international practices of lean production, presents the financial and economic effects of the implementation of the lean manufacturing project. Each section includes questions for students to better master the material they have learned. Recommended for students of higher professional education, studying in the areas of training "Economics", "Management", in particular masters in the relevant areas in lean production, economics of production, production management.