Социально-политические факторы развития искусства и процессы актуализации национальной идентичности в Корее начала XX века
Ethnic spiritual culture is closely related to birth and development of its carrier (ethnos). This
can be proved by a certain transformation of its forms during critical periods in its history. Art, as
one of the domains of spiritual culture, expediently reflects the state of mental and moral development of society. At the beginning of 20th century, after the establishment of the protectorate of Japan in Korean society, discussions on art as a national wealth and special people's power intensified
due to the actualization of ethnic identity and the activation of mechanisms of psychological defense. This contributed to the emergence of museums, exhibitions, professional associations, unions, educational institutions and, as a consequence, the formation of the scientific community in Korean art. Museums and exhibitions organized by the Japanese government in order to prove the superiority of their culture, however, contributed to the perception of heritage as it is owned exactly by Koreans. This further stimulated consolidating mechanisms of Korean nation.
Unlike medieval intellectuals munin, artists of the first half of the 20th century created their works not only guided for its taste or imitating ancient samples. There were new western trends and theories created by Japanese and Korean art critics, which supposed to be main guidelines for them.
In 1930s, with the publication of some analytical works on the history of art and aesthetics, the
Korean scientific community faced the problem of choosing ideological orientations and adaptation of new trends in order to create compelling patterns for further development. At the same time changes of the interpretation of the concept misul took place. The concept unfolded into painting and sculpture which was typical for the European tradition. Common interpretation of the concept keundae misul during this period could not be found, as self-perception of some Korean masters as scientists and scribes still dominated. The arts were not included in the scope of professional activities for them and served as a form of interesting and useful leisure. Nevertheless, important changes in Korean art took place in the first half of the ХХ century, as the basis for scientific study and the partly formed conceptual apparatus occurred. There were also schools for training established by force of visualizing the heritage of the past eras, the appearance of articles in scientific journals, newspapers and advent of art critics and scientific communities, the concept of «contemporary art of Korea» was shaping and acquiring the meaning that it is at the moment.