How do trade and communication costs shape the spatial organization of firms?
We consider an economic geography setting in which firms are free to choose one of the following organizational types: (i) integrated firms, which perform all their activities at the same location, (ii) horizontal firms, which operate several plants producing the same good at different locations, and (iii) vertical firms, which perform distinct activities at separated locations. We show that there exists a unique organizational equilibrium, which typically involves the coexistence of various organizational forms. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for the three types of firms to coexist within the same region and show that transportation and communication costs have opposite effects on firms’ organizational choices. This suggests that, depending on its nature, the supply of a new transportation infrastructure may lead to contrasted locational patterns.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.
The object of study of this paper is a regional economic system which is complex, dynamic and developable by nature. The reproduction of material wealth necessary for the region is provided in the process of functioning of the above system through the interaction between the combinations of subjective (personal) and objective (material) elements, thereby meeting regional environmental and economic needs.
A comparative study of the course of development of Ukraine and Belorussia can contribute greatly to understanding the regularities of historical evolution of the Eastern part of Europe, in particular to the alternatives of nation-building. It’s necessary to consider Ukrainian-Belorussian parallels in the regional context, taking into account the influence of various factors. Comparative approach is also fruitful in researching the past and present state of historical science of the two neighboring countries.
Volume is devoted to the problems of regional development of Russia. The issues of structuring of sociogeographi- cal space of our country, the most important factors and the latest trends of its regional development, differentiation between Russian regions by a variety of socioeconomic, demographic, ecological parameters, as well as key issues of re¬gional policy in Russia are considered. Particular attention is paid to identifying the specifics of the Russian regions (from macro-regions to federal subjects), with emphasis on the analysis of regional problems and concrete complex situations.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.