A political scientist examines how regional elites shape the electoral fortunes of Russia’s hegemonic party, United Russia (UR). Using original data on regional legislative elections from 2003 to 2011, we show that UR performs better in those regions where regional governors control strong political machines. Russia’s leadership undercut its own electoral strategy by replacing popular elected governors with colorless bureaucrats who struggled to mobilize votes on behalf of United Russia. This is one of the reasons for United Russia’s poor performance in recent elections.
More frequent disasters are becoming a cause of greater damage to states and regions of the world. Correct economic evaluation of these losses is a topical scientific and practical problem. Its solution allows us to measure and understand, on the one hand, the scale and depth of the consequences of the effect of this factor on the stability and dynamics of socioeconomic development and the security of specific territories and, on the other hand, the volume and structure of the needs for resources necessary to mitigate these consequences and restore (maintain) normal life conditions. This article presents an analytical overview of domestic and international approaches to the economic evaluation of losses and damage from natural disasters; the author’s approach to the evaluation of direct, indirect, and full damage is presented.
The application of mathematical modeling methods (with subsequent computer sales) to determine the parameters of accuracy geometry bands obtained with the new equipment and process the step deformation bands of hard alloys based on copper