The paper investigates regional differences in life expectancy at birth of women and men. We assume that gender gap in life expectancy is related to economic conditions in a region and the tendency to unhealthy lifestyles, particularly to alcohol consumption. We include into analysis mortality from external causes and mortality from respiratory diseases, since they are associated with alcohol abuse and smoking. Data source is the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia. Panel data analysis of 1990-2014 shows significant positive effect of alcohol consumption on the gender gap in life expectancy. Results confirm the importance of maintaining restrictive anti-alcohol measures in the country.
The article explores the problems of determining and changing the composition of the assets that provide economic and social development of the Arctic zone (AZ) of the Russian Federation. The authors use an approach that combines particular features of two different concepts. The first one was used to assess the assets mainly used for the development of natural resources. In contrast, the second one refers to the assets, related to the activities and lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the North and the Arctic.
On the one hand, economic assets of the AZ traditionally are characterized by the unique properties of natural resources and site characteristics (economies of scale). On the other hand, one of the immanent elements of the assets of the peoples, living in the North and Arctic regions, was considered to be the so-called "transformity". The latter refers to spatial dispersion of assets, flexibility and adaptability of applied knowledge and practices that ensure harmonious relationships with the environment and unique natural objects. The authors' approach assumes the shift from the "economies of scale " in its pure form to the formation of economic assets that combine the best modern high-tech solutions and the quality of transformation inherent in the traditional economic activities of the peoples of the North and the Arctic.
«Resource curse» - a phenomenon that leads countries with large reserves of raw materials to erroneous and unsustainable path of development. Phenomenon that baffles scientists and theorists, causes a huge amount of debate and controversy. But in fact, all the same whether it is a resource curse? Or is there some kind of «power from above», causing this phenomenon?
The article is dedicated to ownerless road as a complex management, legal and economic problem. Current judicial and administrative practice traces only the local cases of ownerlessness, but it seems to be widescale, significant and systematic phenomenon. The analysis is based on scientific literature and legislation review, statistics and local mass media investigation. Illegitimate roads and its scale do not correlate with administrative-territorial, geographic or regional economic factors. Ownerlessness was triggered by long-term existence of demotivating system of road financing, by complexity of procedures and unresolved land relations in Russia.
The year 2020 that is over as well as the year that started will long be remembered by the current and future generations living on Earth. The reason is clear – it is the coronavirus pandemic and the major problems mankind faced. Their list is extremely long, not yet fully grasped, and far from completed.
As the pandemic entered our lives the recognition of what is happening around and might yet happen in the near and distant future has kept on changing. This does not only concern every one of us (infection is somewhere far away, it is already here, ‘My God, I am sick!’, life goes on, one can’t bring back the dead ones) but all the various organizations in our society (from households and enterprises to states and the world community as a whole).
The paper discuses challenges for antismoking policy in Russia, paying special attention to youth smoking problems. We present data on tobacco consumption and factors favoring individual decision to smoke. We justify government intervention by giving theoretical and empirical evidence for externalities, produced by passive smoking, information asymmetry and addiction effects. We use RLMS data and Students survey results to discuss the need and attitude towards such measures as tobacco tax increase, restrictions on smoking in public places, total ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship etc.
The aim of the work is to assess the impact of the 2014 geopolitical and economic crisis on the health of St. Petersburg residents. According to the accepted hypothesis, the crisis had a negative impact on the health of citizens and the conditions of their livelihoods. To test the hypothesis, the dynamics of indicators directly describing the level of public health, as well as factors affecting this level, was considered. The long-term trends prevailing in the pre-crisis period were studied, and a linear trend was constructed for each indicator and extrapolated values were calculated for two years following 2014. The main measure of the impact of the crisis on the dynamics of the indicator was the negative deviation from the trend in these years. Twenty-six indicators that showed a negative deviation were identified and investigated. As a result, it was proved that the crisis had a significant negative impact on the health of the residents of St. Petersburg. Including a sharp decline in environmental indicators, which we associate with the tradition of “residual financing” of the social sphere during the crisis, the same reason caused a significant reduction in a number of health resources. The crisis also had a negative impact on the structure of consumption, causing a decrease in the consumption of high-quality goods and an increase in consumption of low-quality goods. The dynamics of the incidence of a number of diseases showed that the deterioration in the quality of nutrition made a significant contribution to the increase in the incidence. It is shown that the current program of development of health care of the city contains low targets and does not take into account environmental factors, which reduces its effectiveness as an instrument of regional social policy. The proposed method makes it possible to calculate scientifically based targets for programs for the restoration development of the social sphere in the region.
Electric cars will become comparable with traditional cars around 2025–2030, and will quickly begin to supplant the latter in developed and largest developing countries. The paper assesses the prospects for promoting electric vehicles in the USA, China, Europe and the world as well as the impact of this process on oil consumption. It is shown that by 2040 electric vehicles can make up 19% of the global passenger car stock and displace 4,7 mbd, mainly in the key export markets for Russian oil companies – Europe and China.
Russia’s joining the WTO limits the government in its direct supports to the agriculture. However, it is clear that our agrarians will unlikely survive without a serious support. Russia will have to build a new model of support which incorporates the WTO’s permissive rules. Recovery of expenses to the agrarians who operate on the lands qualified as unfavorable to agriculture should become one of the major support tools in the nearest future. The paper describes the debates on the issues of qualification of lands as those unfavorable to agriculture and sizes of compensations held between the Russian Ministry of Agriculture and experts.