Cooperation or Non-Cooperation? An Attempt to Conceptualize Economic Sanctions in Global Political Conflicts.
The book "Coercive Economic Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory" by Mark Daniel Jaeger examines the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that lead either to cooperation or non-cooperation. The main assumption of the work is that coercive economic sanctions should be understood as relational, socially constructed facts and that conflicts over sanctions, as discursive conflicts, result from incompatibilities of interest (issue conflicts) or identity (identity conflicts). Based on the premises of Luhmann’s social systems theory and securitization theory, the author creates a theoretical model that seeks to explore the conflicts’ (de-)escalation from a sociological perspective. The study is based on case studies of sanctions conflicts between Mainland China and Taiwan as well as between the US and Iran over the Islamic Republic’s nuclear program. The research has demonstrated that depending on the combination of different sanctions regimes (positive or negative) and particular sanctions policies of an initiator and the response of an addressee, the conflict may result in further securitization or de-securitization.
This volume examines the complex international system of the twenty first century from a variety of perspectives. Proceeding from critical theoretical perspectives and incorporating case studies, the chapters focus on broad trends as well as micro-realities of a Post-Westphalian international system. The process of transformation and change of the international system has been an ongoing cumulative process. Many forces including conflict, technological innovation, and communication have contributed to the creation of a transnational world with political, economic, and social implications for all societies. Transnationalism functions both as an integrative factor and one which exposes the existing and the newly emerging divisions between societies and cultures and between nations and states. The chapters in this volume demonstrate that re-thinking fundamental assumptions as well as theoretical and methodological premises is central to understanding the dynamics of interdependence.
Saving and creating jobs in a recession and the current situation in the economic crisis, in part due to the sanctions imposed by the Russian Federation - is a priority for every state. Powered by article analysis of the structural changes on the example of the federal city of St. Petersburg reflects the dynamics of the number of employees by main activity. Analysis of data of the number of employees on key sectors of the economy is an indicator of both development and current state of the real sector of the Russian economy.
Sanctions and the future of EU-Russian relations
> Georgia. Georgia's $16 bln economy saw strong annual growth in 2010-12 of around 6-7%, but in 2013 growth slowed to 3.2%, which is still good but not enough for an economy with a GDP per capita of around $3,600. Indeed, over the year, Georgia - which depends heavily on capital inflows - failed to utilize its competitive advantage of lower unit labor costs than in other countries in the region, such as Turkey and Bulgaria. > Turkey. The Turkish economy performed well in 1H14 as industrial output rose 3.8% y-o-y (down from 5.3% y-o-y in 5m14). GDP climbed 4.3% y-o-y in 1Q14, and we estimate 2Q14 to show GDP growth just below 4.0%. We expect 3.7% for 2014 as a whole, which is a bit stronger than we expected early in the year. > Bulgaria. Similar to some other smaller economies in the region, Bulgaria benefited from a recovery in the Eurozone that was characterized by ECB President Mario Draghi on August 7 as "moderate and uneven." Bulgarian GDP picked up to around 1.4% y-o-y in 1H14 (1.2% in 1Q14 and 1.6% in 2Q14). Given that Bulgaria's currency is pegged to the euro, the country was unable to extract benefits from this recovery to the same extent as some other countries, such as Turkey, Hungary or Romania, whose monetary policy and exchange rates are more independent. In 2H14, Bulgaria will face additional pressure from potentially slower growth in the EU as policy makers in the West and Russia continue experiments with sanctions.
The present paper focuses on the political processes in South Korea after the liberation from Japanese colonialism in August 1945 and before the establishment of the Republic of Korea in August 1948. Due to the division of Korea along the 38 parallel and dislocation of the US and USSR’s occupation forces in South and North Korea respectively the US with support of UN contributed a lot to the establishment of an independent South Korean state but didn’t prejudge the political situation completely. South Korean newspapers, documents on the American and Soviet foreign policy were used to determine a shift of the US strategy toward Korea and a political tactic of South Korean nationalists during transitional period (1945-1948). The preliminary results of the research show that the shift of the US strategy toward establishment a separatist government in South Korea coincided with the separatist tactic of South Korean right wing political groups. South Korean moderates developed a political movement for keeping national unity thus opposing to the rightists. The establishment of an independent South Korean state was a result of the joint efforts of the US and South Korean rightists and extreme right political groups.
The paper deals with an axiological dimension in discourse studies. It presents different theories of values in Russian and European scientific research, focuses on the heuristic potential of values and value studies for discourse analyses. Specifically, the two traditional strategies in political discourse, i.e. identification and out-casting, are analyzed vis-à-vis the category of value. It is contended that values are integrated in discourse, with ‘discourse’ construed as a ‘way of speaking which gives meaning to experiences from a particular perspective’. Values are defined as notions about ideal states of affairs tied to specific social practices as instantiated in their respective discourses in the abovementioned sense. These discourse-specific values, as common-sense, taken-for-granted, notions of excellence, control verbalization processes. An ‘out-group’ is thus always represented textually out of the discourse-driven system of values of an in-group. An in-group system of values pre-frames word choice, attitudes and evaluations in a text/texts, with an out-group system of values being automatically ruled out.
The article raises questions of influence of the western sanctions on the market of real estate in Russia. The most vulnerable segments of the market of real estate are allocated and negative consequences of sanctions for all branches are analyzed. The opinions of experts are given. Alternative options of development of segments of the market are formulated and possible anti-recessionary scenarios are offered.
Why do some countries become democracies, while others move from one nondemocratic regime to another? Post-communist transformations in the countries of the former Soviet Union could be viewed as a “natural experiment” in regime change: the politics of post-Soviet states demonstrate a great diversity. In this article, I present a partial theory of post-Soviet regime change and attempt to explain the outcomes of elite conflicts in post-Soviet states and their consequences for regime change. The account of political transformations in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus will outline certain common features and peculiarities of regime change in each case and provide several implications for comparative studies of regime change.