Методы и механизмы планирования и управления в условиях чрезвычайных ситуаций
This chapter describes an economic model for independent job flow management in distributed computing environments with non-dedicated resources. The model is based on the concept of fair resource distribution between users and owners of computational nodes by means of economic mechanisms in a virtual organization. Scheduling is performed in cycles in accordance with dynamically updated schedules on local processor nodes. Schedule optimization is performed using dynamic programming methods using the set of criteria in accordance with the economic policy of the virtual organization.
This work presents slot selection algorithms in economic models for independent job batch scheduling in distributed computing with non-dedicated resources. Existing approaches towards resource co-allocation and multiprocessor job scheduling in economic models of distributed computing are based on search of time-slots in resource occupancy schedules. The sought time-slots must match requirements of necessary span, computational resource properties, and cost. Usually such scheduling methods consider only suited variant of time-slot set. This work discloses a scheduling scheme that features multi-variant search. Two algorithms of linear complexity for search of alternative variants are proposed and compared. Having several optional resource configurations for each job makes an opportunity to perform an optimization of execution of the whole batch of jobs and to increase overall efficiency of scheduling.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
In the paper integrated information systems for corporate planning and budgeting are considered. Four groups of practical tasks exceeding the bounds of typical functionality of special-purpose planning and budgeting information systems are allocated. Several classes of information systems (simulation, statistical analysis, financial analysis and modeling, group decision making, business intelligence), which may provide the completeness of corporate planning and budgeting are denoted as solutions complementary to special-purpose planning and budgeting systems.
In this article we describe a system allowing companies to organize an efficient inventory management with 40 suppliers of different products. The system consists of four modules, each of which can be improved: demand planning, inventory management, procurement planning and KPI reporting. Described system was implemented in a real company, specializing on perishable products totaling over 600 SKUs. The system helped the company to increase its turnover by 7% while keeping the same level of services.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.