Study of Data Transfer in a Heterogeneous LoRa-Satellite Network for the Internet of Remote Things
In the absence of traditional communication infrastructures, the choice of available technologies for building data collection and control systems in remote areas is very limited. This paper reviews and analyzes protocols and technologies for transferring Internet of Things (IoT) data and presents an architecture for a hybrid IoT-satellite network, which includes a long range (LoRa) low power wide area network (LPWAN) terrestrial network for data collection and an Iridium satellite system for backhaul connectivity. Simulation modelling, together with a specialized experimental stand, allowed us to study the applicability of different methods of information presentation for the case of transmitting IoT data over low-speed satellite communication channels. We proposed a data encoding and packaging scheme called GDEP (Gateway Data Encoding and Packaging). It is based on the combination of data format conversion at the connection points of a heterogeneous network and message packaging. GDEP enabled the reduction of the number of utilized Short Burst Data (SBD) containers and the overall transmitted data size by almost five times.
This paper discusses data interchange formats in the context of heterogeneous networks for the Internet of Things (IoT). The wide dissemination of IoT technologies into various industries, such as agriculture and mining, reveals data transfer issues in geographically remote locations due to absence of any network infrastructure. Several technologies like LoraWAN and NB-IOT offer extended communication ranges, however they still cannot fully solve the problem. In many cases satellite networks are the only available option for transmitting IoT data to a central collection point. Our research of satellite networks showed that as of today the Iridium Short Burst Data (SBD) network is one of the best technologies suited for IoT applications. However, the SBD imposes a significant limit on the size of transmitted messages, which turns data format selection into a vitally important task. We developed a simulation model as well as a heterogeneous Iridium-LoRAWAN prototype to compare different data exchange formats. Our experiments showed more than 4 times increase in the amount of data transferred with Protocol Buffers, compared to the widely used JSON format.
In order to meet the rising demands for the Internet of Things technologies, Wi-Fi community has developed Wi-Fi HaLow. It extends Wi-Fi with new functionality supporting high number of autonomous devices with various power capabilities and traffic patterns. In the paper, we study the cooperation of such new mechanisms as TIM Segmentation and Restricted Access Window. TIM Segmentation reduces energy consumption for low-power devices retrieving data from the Access Point, while Restricted Access Window reduces contention and allows the Access Point to protect stations with different capabilities from interfering each other. We consider joint usage of these mechanisms in a heterogeneous network with a high number of low-power stations with rare traffic and several powered stations with saturated traffic. Specifically, for TIM Segmentation and Restricted Access Window we develop a simple and fairly accurate mathematical method to set up the parameters of the mechanisms in order to improve performance for both types of stations, i.e. to reduce power consumption for low-power stations and to increase throughput for the other ones.
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) is a new solution for the Internet of Things (IoT). This type of networks already has several specific implementations like LoRa, Sigfox, Weightless, RPMA and others. Due to long wireless range, low power consumption and numerous nodes low speed overlay networks can be organized on top of LPWAN. Small pieces of data like text messages, low-quality photographs, etc. can be sent over these overlays and can be of significant importance for emergency services. When organizing an overlay network over LPWAN it is important to meet the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements present in the base network to prevent malfunction of its services. This paper presents the results of experimental study of QoS metrics measurement in LoRaWAN networks.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.