Фокусировка региональной промышленной политики через отраслевую специализацию
The study verifies the compliance of sectorial specialization of Russian regions and the priorities of regional development presented in the form of cluster initiatives. The case of cluster policy shows that sectorial specialization of Russian regions, which was identified statistically, is often ignored when applying public support measures. The paper reports on the results of comparative analysis of the method for determining regions’ specialization industries used in the paper with the list of “economic specializations of Russian regions” mentioned in the “Strategy for the spatial development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025”. The paper suggests recommendations that ensure the multi-level coordination of policymakers’ actions and concentration of resources on the justified
priorities of regional development.
Leading countries consider regional clusters as an efficient tool of interaction between actors of a region’s innovation system, which allows generating new poles of economic growth. There is a plenty of literature describing positive experience of clusters’ public support. In Russia, this process is still at an early stage. Russia’s strategy of innovative development until 2020 includes a program for supporting pilot innovative regional clusters. The aim is to make these clusters self-sustained.
Emergence and outlook of a cluster’s evolution are largely dependent on a range of basic conditions, such as: the urban environment; available critical mass of specialized companies; internal competition and openness to the outside world. There is always a risk that without government support the cluster will not be able to shift to the desired trajectory.
The paper presents a detailed overview of research devoted to the best practices of implementing state cluster policy. It provides a detailed analysis of the characteristic features of successful clusters, evaluates matching of Russia’s pilot innovative regional clusters to these criteria, as well as quantitative comparison between domestic and foreign clusters, suggests a model for sustainable cluster development.
The empirical base of the study is the development programmes of pilot innovative regional clusters, submitted to Ministry of Economic Development of Russia through 2012 in the framework of a special contest, as well as the results of the survey, commissioned by the JSC "Russian Venture Company" at the end of 2013.
The article describes clusters as a mechanism for economic growth and innovation in the region. The author considers the approach to the definition of a cluster as normative legal acts, and in the scientific literature, the advantages of cluster development are defined, and the cumulative effects of interaction between organizations within clusters are described. The information on the development institutions of clusters is presented on the example St. Petersburg.
The state policy on stimulation of development innovative clusters at regional level is considered. By the analysis of experience of realisation кластерных initiatives in various regions, the basic directions of assistance to their development, public authorities and local government are established. The basic reference points of the state policy aimed at creation clusters are defined. The technique of identification innovative territorial clusters is proved.
The article reveals the concepts and the specific characteristics of the cluster policy, describes its generic problems inherent in the transition economies, including Russia. Authors describe possible directions of cluster policy realization in Russia. It is shown that many vital issues of the cluster policies implementation lie in its organization. Based on the example of the Scandinavian countries, that recognize the importance of the cluster approach, authors describe the organizational aspects of the implemented cluster programs. Authors define three types of cluster policy organizational structure and reveal the central role of the specialized agencies, whose analogues in Russia can be the regional centers of cluster development. Authors propose a typology of cluster policy organizationalstructuresthat differ in the number of involved ministries and specialized agencies, the types of relationship and object of regulation, functions and status of the authorized agencies. This typology is used to categorize the experience of cluster policy implementation in different countries. It is shown that under similar conditions the organization of cluster policy can take many forms and vary with time.
Ces derniers temps, le nombre et la qualité des clusters ont pris une expansion visible en Russie. Avant l’adoption d’une politique de clusters au niveau fédéral, à la fi n de la décennie 2000, seules quelques régions avaient fait part de leur intention de contribuer au développement de ceux qui existaient sur leur territoire et dont peu marchaient vraiment. La situation, en outre, a radicalement changé au cours des dernières années.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.