Влияние региональных различий на управление цепями поставок транснациональных корпораций
In the context of globalization of the world economy, multinational corporations
are attracting more and more attention, since their activities create a significant part
of the global trade. However, the specifics of supply chain management (SCM) in
such companies receive insufficient attention, and the rules and recommendations
are largely based on the classical principles of the SCM theory. However, there is
a specificity of working in a cross-cultural environment when counterparties you
work with represent different countries. This article is devoted to an overview of the
development of SCM in various regions of the world and methods of reengineering
of multinational corporations’ business processes due to the regional differences.
The article firstly provides a literature review on the regional specifics of the
development of logistics and SCM; secondly, shows an example of the supply chain
negotiation process differences, depending on the nationality of the counterparty;
thirdly, describes a tool for taking regional factors into account when engineering
key business processes in the supply chain. The article demonstrates the structure
of the «Guidelines for Supply Chain Management in a Cross-Cultural Environment»
– a decision support tool for a SCM manager of international level.
Supply Chain Management in modern conditions requires close integration of business processes of transport companies and information technology. We know that today there are a large number of applications and information systems for the automation of logistics activities. Currently there is no complete and consistent classification of software products of the Transportation Management System (TMS). Their diversity is relevant in the context of the fourth industrial revolution ("Industry 4.0"). It's difficult to navigate existing and emerging information systems and choose the most appropriate. The most important class TMS products are designed to plan, organize, and account for the operation of the vehicle fleet. However, their practical use is often ineffective for several reasons. One of the common problems in the implementation of the information system is the lack of or inadequate investigation of all operating activities of the enterprise and its strategic position in the market, the analysis of information flows, evaluation of employees of business roles, mechanism of decision-making. The reason for this is the lack of logistics management competencies in the field of information technology, and on the other hand, often poor understanding of IT-managers of the transport processes. Therefore, a practical approach synchronization strategic goals, objectives, business processes, supply chain management with business logic implemented information system. The paper discusses the use of proper Zachman enterprise architecture framework as this approach. This proper framework is simple enough to understand, and is known for a long time in the IT industry. Therefore, its use in the development of the information supply chain management system in practice, it seems appropriate for small and medium-sized freight enterprises. It is known that the business processes of all transport companies in general are often very similar. However, in practice often requires a flexible adaptation of the information system for each of them.
It is gratifying to note that the agenda of the Conference covers a wide range of very interesting topics relating to the operations and supply chain management, especially those directly related to Global Connectivity. In addition to the Rail Transportation and Healthcare Logistics areas mentioned earlier, we have organized special sessions in Apparel Supply chains and corporate social responsibility, Big Data in SCM, and Food Supply and Distribution as well.
It gives us great pleasure to welcome you on the 17th edition of the International Conference on Harbor, Maritime & Multimodal Logistics Modeling and Simulation (HMS 2015) part of the 12th International Multidisciplinary Modeling and Simulation Multiconference (I3M). HMS 2015 upholds a long tradition started in 1999 in the field of simulation and computer technologies applied to logistics, supply chain management, multimodal transportation, maritime environment and industrial logistics. As time goes by, HMS looks at the future of science and practice seeking to capture new and emerging development trends but not only. As challenges are put forward by the fast changing social, technical and economic situation, a great effort has been done to set up an advanced scientific program with lots of talks, seminars, research presentations and discussions. Valuable research experiences need to be shared for developing new knowledge and generating new groundbreaking ideas. This is, in essence, the inner meaning that HMS nurtures. Therefore HMS gives a not‐to‐be‐missed chance of networking among colleagues to set up new relations and strengthening long‐established ties on joint research interests. It’s our firm determination that HMS 2015, as indeed past and future editions, could end with some strong take‐home messages rewarding merits and scientific excellence. To this end, HMS provides the Authors of the best papers with the opportunity to extend their works for publication in International Journals Special Issues.
At the enterprises integrated into structure of multinational corporations, high-quality changes of the labor relations are observed. How traditional trade union' practices adapt to policy and actions of the new owner? What problems are generated by this interaction? How priorities and forms of trade-union organization work are changing? The author offers answers to these questions, analyzing Samara Metallurgical Plant experience.
In this paper the authors explain the necessity of social discount rate for appraisal for the public sector investment projects. Methods for social discount rate evaluation that have been developed by the present moment are considered. A methodology and relevant calculations of social rate of time preferences for Russia are presented. It is substantiated that social discount rate should be evaluated not only for the country as a whole but also for the particular regions. The results of calculations for all the Russian regions are described, and regional differences explained.
To serve target customers better than their competitors, supply chain management (SCM) teams today look into new technologies such as Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain. These new technologies allow managers to develop and provide complex supply chain services and products faster with improved reliabilities. With these technologies, SCM teams can build complex models of a supply chain or systems of supply chains using a data-driven approach. With the growth of aviation domain across the world, there has been increasing demand in aircraft for airlines and other customers. In this domain, SCM teams deal with complex networked supply chains for aircraft’s spare part purchase and delivery for aircraft’s maintenance and repair. Aircraft’s spare parts are shipped to single assembly hubs, located globally. All parts come with certain life expectancy, specific requirements and maintenance attributes. With thousands of spare parts, hundreds of parameters, and number of manufactures distributed globally, SCM team need to deal with very large amount of data. In this paper, we use an industrial scenario of aviation industry SCM to demonstrate the necessity of having decentralized system based on distributed data-driven application technologies such as Blockchain, not only to assist in maintaining inventory of the aircraft’s parts but also to monitor the performance, usage, etc. This will help to achieve a transparent network of supply chain for aircraft’s parts and reduce the risk of availability of aircraft’s parts in black market. These new data-driven technologies when embedded into SCM scenarios will help the SCM managers to analyse the supply, demands, source of availability of spare parts and provide methods to procure them from the right sources.
The article considers the phenomenon of temporary labor migration, i.e. the so-called ‘contemporary migrant/seasonal work’. The author focuses on its regional features determined by economic, social-cultural and demographic situation in the migrant workers’ hometowns and villages. There is a clear differentiation in such characteristics as the scale of migrant work, women’s seasonal positions, dominant motives of such work and its key specialties, migrant workers’ status in the local community, etc., especially in the northern and southern parts of European Russia. The share of migrant workers in local communities is much higher in the ‘south’ than in the ‘north’ for the density of population in the ‘south’ is higher. In the ‘south’, both men and women are engaged in migrant work while in the ‘north’ women among the migrant workers are rare. The ‘north’ with its forests is known for migrant carpenters that build houses, bathhouses and other buildings for wealthy city dwellers (there are almost no carpenters in the ‘south’). The ‘southern’ migrant workers can be divided into two groups — general workers and skilled workers engaged in oil and gas industries, so labor competition is fierce in the ‘south’; moreover there is a big demand for ‘northern’ carpenters’ unique skills. Thus, ‘southern’ migrant workers are motivated by push-factors, while the ‘northern’ — by the attraction-factors. The scale of migrant work and its key specialties determine the differences in migrant workers’ positions in local communities: for instance, carpenters of the ‘north’ mainly have a high social status; ‘southern’ migrant general workers usually have a low status, while the skilled ones — a high status.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management