Социальные факторы выбора контрагентов на бирже удалённой работы: исследование конкурсов с помощью «больших данных»
A specific form of informal employment is presented by electronic freelancers, e.g. self-employed professionals working remotely via the Internet. Andrey Shevchuk and Denis Strebkov launched Russian Freelance Survey (RFS) that brought more than 10,000 usable responses in each of two waves in 2008 and 2010, making RFS one of the largest freelance surveys in the world. Using these unique data sets, the authors describe the main groups involved in the Russian-speaking e-lance market and demonstrate how they cope with the high level of informality of institutional arrangements and opportunistic behaviour of market actors.
Pattern structures, an extension of FCA to data with complex descriptions, propose an alternative to conceptual scaling (binarization) by giving direct way to knowledge discovery in complex data such as logical formulas, graphs, strings, tuples of numerical intervals, etc. Whereas the approach to classification with pattern structures based on preceding generation of classifiers can lead to double exponent complexity, the combination of lazy evaluation with projection approximations of initial data, randomization and parallelization, results in reduction of algorithmic complexity to low degree polynomial, and thus is feasible for big data.
The proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2013), held in Berlin, Germany, December 2–5, 2013, contain high-quality research papers that represent the latest results, ideas, and positions in the field of service-oriented computing. Since the first meeting more than ten years ago, ICSOC has grown to become the premier international forum for academics, industry researchers, and practitioners to share, report, and discuss their ground-breaking work. ICSOC 2013 continued along this tradition, in particular focusing on emerging trends at the intersection between service-oriented, cloud computing, and big data.
Based on a sample of 5,784 Russian-speaking respondents, this study provides the first quantitative evidence on freelance contracting via the Internet. We explore the extent to which these virtual business relations are formal or informal, and the role of social capital and
networking. Our data suggest freelancers act under constant threat of malfeasance from clients. We address a number of questions associated with freelancers’ business risks and how freelancers might mitigate them. The logistic regression models reveal that the virtualization of relationships with clients is associated with greater moral hazard risks and fewer opportunities for dispute resolution. Formal written contracts do not prevent opportunistic behaviors by clients, though such contracts help resolve conflicts. Dealing with available social contacts and referrals decreases both the probability of extreme opportunism, causing financial losses, and the probability that disputes remain unresolved. Nevertheless, established social relations could be exploited by clients who
can delay payments or insist on altering deadlines, work scope and specifications. Thus, our findings contribute to existing literatures on social capital in freelance contracting and on the structure of occupational labor markets.
Full texts of third international conference on data analytics are presented.
The practical relevance of process mining is increasing as more and more event data become available. Process mining techniques aim to discover, monitor and improve real processes by extracting knowledge from event logs. The two most prominent process mining tasks are: (i) process discovery: learning a process model from example behavior recorded in an event log, and (ii) conformance checking: diagnosing and quantifying discrepancies between observed behavior and modeled behavior. The increasing volume of event data provides both opportunities and challenges for process mining. Existing process mining techniques have problems dealing with large event logs referring to many different activities. Therefore, we propose a generic approach to decompose process mining problems. The decomposition approach is generic and can be combined with different existing process discovery and conformance checking techniques. It is possible to split computationally challenging process mining problems into many smaller problems that can be analyzed easily and whose results can be combined into solutions for the original problems.
In 2015-2016 the Department of Communication, Media and Design of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics” in collaboration with non-profit organization ROCIT conducted research aimed to construct the Index of Digital Literacy in Russian Regions. This research was the priority and remain unmatched for the momentIn 2015-2016 the Department of Communication, Media and Design of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics” in collaboration with non-profit organization ROCIT conducted research aimed to construct the Index of Digital Literacy in Russian Regions. This research was the priority and remain unmatched for the moment
Companies are increasingly paying close attention to the IP portfolio, which is a key competitive advantage, so patents and patent applications, as well as analysis and identification of future trends, become one of the important and strategic components of a business strategy. We argue that the problems of identifying and predicting trends or entities, as well as the search for technical features, can be solved with the help of easily accessible Big Data technologies, machine learning and predictive analytics, thereby offering an effective plan for development and progress. The purpose of this study is twofold, the first is an identification of technological trends, the second is an identification of application areas and/or that are most promising in terms of technology development and investment. The research was based on methods of clustering, processing of large text files and search queries in patent databases. The suggested approach is considered on the basis of experimental data in the field of moving connected UAVs and passive acoustic ecology control.
The article is dedicated to the analysis of Big Data perspective in jurisprudence. It is proved that Big Data have to be used as the explanatory and predictable tool. The author describes issues concerning Big Data application in legal research. The problems are technical (data access, technical imperfections, data verification) and informative (interpretation of data and correlations). It is concluded that there is the necessity to enhance Big Data investigations taking into account the abovementioned limits.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.