I-V- Characteristics Analysis of Betavoltaic Microbatteries Using TCAD Model
The complete analysis of I-V characteristics and set of basical parameters (Voc, Jsc, Idark, Pmax, η) for betavoltaic silicon batteries under Nickel-63 irradiation in temperature range 213-330 K is carried out using universal physical TCAD model. The standard TCAD optical generation model was adopted for simulation of electron-hole generation for beta particles irradiation. The pn-junction diode energy converters with real Gaussian doping profiles are considered instead of devices with abrupt profiles which were used in all previous works. The simulated current-voltage characteristics of the 63Ni-Si betavoltaic elements are in good agreement with the measured characteristics in the whole of temperature range.
For the correct accounting of joint effects of radiation and temperature on characteristics of MOSFETs with the help of TCAD system the nonlinear correction coefficient which considers change of concentration of traps from temperature is entered into model of traps volume density in oxide.
The sub-100-nm CMOS process with a high-κ gate dielectric is one of the key technologies for the fabrication of digital, analog, and RF VLSI circuits and on-chip systems. The influence of ionizing radiation on 45-nm MOS transistors with a high-κ dielectric fabricated using the bulk-silicon and SOI technologies is simulated. Effects induced by the substitution of SiO2 with a high-κ dielectric are noted. The processes of selection and tuning of physical models for the simulation of high-κ MOS transistors in the Sentaurus TCAD are outlined. A set of new physical semiempirical models introducing the dependence of radiation-sensitive parameters (carrier lifetime, carrier mobility, charge density in the bulk of SiO2 and HfO2 and at the HfO2/Si interfaces) on the irradiation dose is developed. Nanoscale bulk and SOI MOS transistors with a high-κ dielectric are simulated. It is demonstrated that an increase in the drain current after irradiation in nanoscale SOI structures is induced by the charge accumulation in the side oxide. An acceptable fit between the simulation results and the experimental data is obtained. The simulation results confirm that the leakage current is suppressed (compared to common MOS transistors with SiO2) in sub-100-nm MOS transistors with a high-κ dielectric. However, the other important parameters of sub-100-nm MOS transistors with a high-κ dielectric are more sensitive to ionizing radiation.
The models of electrophysical effects built-into Sentaurus TCAD have been tested. The models providing an adequate modeling of deep submicron high-k MOSFETs have been selected. The gate and drain leakage currents for 45 nm MOSFETs with polysilicon gate oxide and SiO2, SiO2/HfO2 and HfO2 gate dielectrics have been calculated using TCAD. It has been shown that the replacement of the traditional SiO2 gate by an equivalent HfO2 dielectric reduces the gate leakage current by several orders of magnitude due to the elimination of the impact of the tunneling effect. Besides, the threshold voltage, saturation drain current, mobility, transconductance, etc., degrade within a range of 10–20%.
A special RAD-THERM version of TCAD subsystem based on Sentaurus Synopsys platform taking into account different types of irradiation (gamma-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, single events) and external/internal heating effects was developed and validated to forecast the results of natural experiments, and help the designer on with reliability guarantee. The radiation- and temperature-induced faults were modeled and simulated for Si/SiGe BJTs/HBTs and bulk/SOI MOSFETs as BiCMOS LSI’s components. The causes of device parameter degradation were discussed.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.