The article reveals the essence of the penalty, its main features as a measure of contractual liability.The author examines the procedures and principles for calculating the penaltyand the reasons and ways to reduce its size. The author also analyze the major challenges of the penalty on the basis of legislation and judicial practice.
Recently, the state taken various measures to protect the rights of citizens who use the various types of transportation, namely air, road and rail. In turn, the legal status of the passenger includes a number of rights and obligations, which legal regulations are in need of improvement. As practice shows, to date, more frequent non-standard rights violations during transportation of passengers and active use of the citizens of judicial and extrajudicial protection of their rights. This paper is devoted to these issues and graduate student of the Department of Private International Law, Faculty of Law of the National Research University «Higher School of Economics» Kasatkina A.S. considering these issues.
The chapter considers the concept of legal liability, types of legal liability, its functions and basic principles.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/