The impact of student academic achievement on graduate salaries: the case of a leading Russian university
This paper analyses the impact of academic achievement on future salaries by looking into the grade point average (GPA)-earnings relationship for graduates of a leading Russian university. The study is based on pooled cross-sectional graduate survey data for 2014–2015. The issue of how student academic achievement impacts future labour market rewards is analysed through academic, demographic and labour market factors. We found that there is a significant positive impact of GPA on salaries of BA graduates (9–12% wage premium for an additional GPA point) and an insignificant or negative impact for MA programmes graduates. The study depicts that this negative effect can be partially explained by employment sector-specific variables. Among the main factors which positively affect earnings of graduates is work experience. Graduates who combined study and work achieve a 30% wage premium. However, there is no evidence that combining study and work affects student academic achievement, even for those who combined studies with full-time job. Despite the higher GPA of female students, male graduates’ earnings are 18% higher. Gender wage differences can be explained by gender distribution by the sector of employment: the over-representation of women in the low-paid education and science sectors and their under-representation in entrepreneurship and corporate sector.
The existing findings on the relationship between optimism and academic performance are rather contradictory. Two studies were undertaken to investigate thе relationship between attributional style, well-being, and academic performance. A new Russian-language measure of attributional style for positive and negative events (Gordeeva, Osin, Shevyakhova, 2009) with stability, globality, and controllability subscales was used. In the first study, optimistic attributional style for good events was associated with higher academic achievement in high school students (N=225) and mediated the effect of academic performance on self-esteem. In the second study, pessimistic attributional style for negative events predicted success in passing three difficult written entrance examinations in university entrants (N=108), and optimistic attributional style for good events predicted success with success expectations as a mediator. The results indicate that attributional styles for positive and negative events are not uniform in their relationship to performance in different academic settings and to well-being variables.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов специальностей «Государственное и муниципальное управление», «Государственное управление и право», «Государственное управление и экономика», «Управление информационными ресурсами» «Управление и аналитика в государственном секторе». Пособие содержит обширный материал, необходимый для развития навыков академического чтения и письма на английском языке.
Задачей пособия является освоение академических навыков на основе специальных текстов, расширение и систематизация навыков академического письма, необходимых для написания курсовых работ и эссе на английском языке. Пособие содержит теоретический материал, примеры вополнения заданий, а также упражнения составлены на основе требований, предъявляемых к написанию научных работ на иностранном языке. В пособии предлагаются ссылки на научные сайты, аутентичные источники, включающие современные издания.
В целом пособие способствует повышению уровня иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции и направлено на формирование компетенций, необходимых для использования английского языка в учебной, научной, и профессиональной деятельности.
Материал апробирован в процессе обучения студентов НИУ ВШЭ Санкт-Петербург.
Пособие может быть использовано для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов. Пособие может быть полезно как студентам первокурсникам, так и студентам старших курсов вузов, а также широкому кругу лиц, изучающих английский язык.
In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools.
In this paper, we examined Budner’s (1962) intolerance of ambiguity scale with respect to its reliability and factor structure on a sample of 1082 Russian-speaking participants. The questionnaire demonstrated a two-factor structure and showed satisfactory internal consistency (reliability) and validity. We also report on a set of correlations between the questionnaire’s scale
Nowadays, combining work and study is typical for both low-income students and those who are well off. Such students have an array of reasons to start working, from the ambition to get integrated into the job market and build a career to the desire to fill their spare time. The paper investigates how different combinations of work and study affect academic performance of students in their final years in Tatarstan higher education institutions. The author analyzes results of the first phase of ‘Monitoring educational and employment trajectories of school and higher education institution graduates’, the longitudinal studies initiated by NRU HSE in 2009. Two factors — employment schedule and the extent to which employment corresponds with what is studied — have helped single out five types of combining work and study. Different combinations reveal different levels of academic performance, different plans for the future, and somewhat different motivation to enter higher education institutions. A regression analysis has shown that only one type of combining work and studies, non-professional full-time employment, has a negative effect on academic performance. The rest of the student employment strategies haven’t shown any statistically important effect on performance. All other conditions being equal, professionally employed students perform better than non-professionally employed ones, and sometimes even better than those who don’t work at all. The perfect choice for students is professional part-time employment, when work becomes an additional source of knowledge and motivation to learn.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.