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## Quantum communication protocols as a benchmark for programmable quantum computers

We point out that realization of quantum communication protocols in programmable quantum computers provides a deep benchmark for capabilities of real quantum hardware. Particularly, it is prospective to focus on measurements of entropy-based characteristics of the performance and to explore whether a “quantum regime” is preserved. We perform proof-of-principle implementations of superdense coding and quantum key distribution BB84 using 5- and 16-qubit superconducting quantum processors of IBM Quantum Experience. We focus on the ability of these quantum machines to provide an efficient transfer of information between distant parts of the processors by placing Alice and Bob at different qubits of the devices.We also examine the ability of quantum devices to serve as quantum memory and to store entangled states used in quantum communication. Another issue we address is an error mitigation. Although it is at odds with benchmarking, this problem is nevertheless of importance in a general context of quantum computation with noisy quantum devices. We perform such a mitigation and noticeably improve some results.

**Mathematical modeling of resonance systems**(2019)

The relevance of scientific research in the field of quantum informatics is grounded. Highlighted promising areas of research. For foreign and Russian publications and materials, an overview of the main scientific results characterizing the current state of quantum informatics has been made. It is concluded that knowledge and resources are most intensively invested in the development of a quantum computer, its architecture and elements, quantum algorithms in the field of cryptography and artificial quantum intelligence. Developments are also actively underway in the field of modeling complex natural and artificial phenomena and processes, the application of quantum computing in the cognitive and social sciences

We point out that superconducting quantum computers are prospective for the simulation of the dynamics of spin models far from equilibrium, including nonadiabatic phenomena and quenches. The important advantage of these machines is that they are programmable, so that different spin models can be simulated in the same chip, as well as various initial states can be encoded into it in a controllable way. This opens an opportunity to use superconducting quantum computers in studies of fundamental problems of statistical physics such as the absence or presence of thermalization in the free evolution of a closed quantum system depending on the choice of the initial state as well as on the integrability of the model. In the present paper, we performed proof-of-principle digital simulations of two spin models, which are the central spin model and the transverse-field Ising model, using 5- and 16-qubit superconducting quantum computers of the IBM Quantum Experience. We found that these devices are able to reproduce some important consequences of the symmetry of the initial state for the system’s subsequent dynamics, such as the excitation blockade. However, lengths of algorithms are currently limited due to quantum gate errors. We also discuss some heuristic methods which can be used to extract valuable information from the imperfect experimental data.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.