The Epitome of the Russian National Idea: Comparative Reconstruction in Sculpture and Narrative
The formulation of the national idea for such a multinational country as Russia is a big issue. Its solution is not monopolized by the ideological institutions; art and popular mentality also contributes to the working out of the meaning for the unifying national idea. The author reconstructs those dominant meanings of the national idea (in art and popular consciousness) by the means of visual and textual analysis. The visual object for this reconstruction was realized by the sculpture that embodied the national idea of Russia at the International Art exhibition. The corpus of texts for the Russian contest that reflected the people’s ideas about the national idea was used in narrative analysis.
This collection of articles is devoted to the problems of philology, culture, philosophy and other humanitarian sciences which are of special interest now days.
The author examines the delicate relationship between such phenomena as philosophy and popular culture. After formulating three attitudes of philosophers working with popular culture (left-critical, right-critical and left-objectivistic), the author proposes the term «crossroad» to show at what point of evolution of philosophy of culture and social theory during the XXth century converged popular culture and philosophy. This «crossroad» turned out to be post-modernism in such representation in which the American Marxist philosopher Fredric Jame-son began to talk about. Postmodernism before Jameson was understood as a trend in art, and only Jameson came up with the idea to extend it to the entire culture that dissolved in during the 1970s in the economy. It was Jameson who first stated the thesis that nowadays high and popular culture represent a single space. Briefly describing Jameson's approach, the author shows what this synthesis of postmodern philosophy and popular culture has led to. Recog-nizing popular culture as legitimate, and its then state as «postmodern», social philosophers began to develop the idea of expansion of culture into the social sphere, however, not in everything agreeing with Jameson. The author emphasizes the idea that the beginning of the XXI century was marked by a surge of philosophical interest in popular culture.
The article addresses the views of G. Shpet, L. Vygotsky, M. Bakhtin andothers on art's influence on one's personality andcognitive andaffective spheres. They hadtheir own understanding of the whole issue andof catharsis in particular. The authors focuses on the analysis of inner andouter forms of works of art andassumes that, if reached, the inner form has the strongest influence on man: it enriches andbroadens one's own inner form of active contemplator of work of art.
Art, cultural consciousness, cultural-historical psychology, inner andouter form, Perception, Understanding, catharsis
Various points of view on the boundaries of art. Argues the position that the work of art must get social recognition as such. General rule - a work of art is the result of a non-zero creativity.
The author analyses the problem of truth as it is presented in the interpretations of Martin Heidegger and Alexandre Koyré, covering Plato’s Republic. Heidegger reads it primarily as a poetic myth of concealment and disclosure, revealing the intellection of Being. The space of political is a space of a historical manifestation and at the same time of the concealment of truth. The history of manifestation of truth is also a history of hiddenness and oblivion. Thereafter the untrue, being a privative mode of the true, no more opposes it; the true and the untrue do not make up a hierarchical pair. Koyré gives a completely different treatment of the Republic, reading it as a dramatical piece, forcing the reader to take sides. The truth is self-referring and placed at the high end of the hierarchy of values ladder, whereas the untrue (as distinct from the plain error) is always a deception, designed to disrupt the horizontal bonds between the citizens that constitute the political space as such. While for Heidegger the paradigmatic example of Dasein relation to Being is a poet who is sort of privy to God, Koyré keeps in place the hierarchical deference of the untrue world of the religious and mythopoetical to the true world of science. The author of the article demonstrates the inseparable link between the aesthetic visions and the political conceptions entertained by Koyré and Heidegger.
An interview with Jan Latham-Koenig, the outstanding conductor from Flanders, who works in Bruges and the Novaya Opera Theatre in Moscow, is devoted to the modern inter-pretations of classical opera pieces. The issue is revealed in a comparative analysis of his conduc-tion in Russia and in theaters of Western countries. One of the main problems is foreign languages, which are very difficult for Russian performers, especially German and even more so French, not only for soloists, but also for the choir. The second problem is twofold: dedication and discipline, which are inextricably linked. This is what Latham-Koenig is trying to achieve in his work. Another challenge is interpretation, which is most evident in the performance of Italian operas by Russian singers—too “heavy” and free interpretation music by Verdi and Puccini. At the same time, this heaviness comes from the fact that Russian singers sing all parts in an aria-like way, even recitatives that need to be almost pronounced, maintaining a conversational rhythm. Using the example of Monteverdi, the conductor shows that for this composer, the secret is to comprehend recitative as conversation during singing, and arias as singing during conversation. An important challenge is creation of an artistic image and conveying it to the public. Despite the tendency to “modernize” classical works, Latham-Koenig does not support this trend of the present-day productions, considering that the music itself was already an interpretation of the libretto, so introducing any additional interpretation into it is excessive. In addition to the questions related to his profession, a special place in the interview is given to the role of politics, which in Russia, in contrast to Western countries, has always been tightly bound with art.
The volume is organized into three main sections: "Art and Culture", "History" and "Language and Literature". Several authors address various aspects of Spanish-Russian relations: historical, political and cultural contacts at various times, the image of Russia in Spain, influences of Russian writers in Spanish literature, etc. In the field of painting, there are studies focusing on the great Spanish authors: El Greco, Ribera, Murillo, Goya, and Picasso. There are studies which are focused on other arts such as architecture and sculpture work. History issues cover topics and times, as the Christian Church in the time of the Muslim conquest, the Crown of Aragon in the 14th century, the Spanish Monarchy, and the Inquisition. Several studies deal with the works of Spanish literature.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.