The introduction of mesenchymal stromal cells induces different immunological responses in the lungs of healthy and M. tuberculosis infected mice
HIV disrupts host defense mechanisms and maintains chronic inflammation in the lung. Nitric oxide is a marker of lung inflammation and can be measured in the exhaled air. We investigated the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), and airway abnormalities in perinatally HIV-infected children aged 6–19 years. In total, 222 HIV-infected and 97 HIV-uninfected participants were included. Among HIV-infected participants, 57 (25.7%) had a history of past TB; 56 (25.2%) had airway obstruction, but no prior TB. HIV status was associated with lower eNO level [mean ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.65–0.97), P = 0.03]. Within the HIV-infected group, history of past TB was associated with lower eNO levels after controlling for age, sex and time of eNO testing [0.79 (95% CI 0.67–0.94), P = 0.007]. HIV infection and history of TB were associated with lower eNO levels. eNO levels may be a marker of HIV and TB-induced alteration in pulmonary physiology; further studies focused on potential causes for lower eNO levels in HIV and TB are warranted.
Abstract: Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal 6 (MDG 6). The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation 1990 to 2013, and an opportunity to assess if there has been accelerated progress since the Millennium Declaration. Methods To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of the literature on mortality with and without out antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalized epidemics, we minimized a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data on all-cause mortality. We analyzed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and anti-retroviral therapy (ART). For tuberculosis, we analyzed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modeling. We analyzed data on corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian metaregression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. Malaria mortality and incidence were analyzed using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria and recent literature on incidence, drug resistance and coverage of insecticide treated bed nets. Findings Globally in 2013, there were 1.8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1.7 million to 2.1 million), 29.0 million prevalent HIV cases (27.9 to 31.4) and 1.3 million HIV deaths (1.2 to 1.5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1.7 million deaths (1.6 to 1.9). Concentrated epidemics in Latin America and Eastern Europe are substantially smaller than previously estimated. Through interventions including PMTCT and ART, 19.3 million life years have been saved, 68.9% in the developing world. From 2000 to 2011, the ratio of development assistance for health for HIV to years of life saved through intervention was $4,647-$7,137 in the developing world. All-forms tuberculosis (including Individuals who are HIV-positive) incidence, prevalence and death numbers in 2013 were 6.6 million (6.4 to 6.7), 10.1 million (9.8 to 10.4) and 1.4 million (1.3 to 1.5), the same figures in Individuals who are HIV-negative were 6.1 million (6.0 to 6.3), 9.5 million (9.2 to 9.8) and 1.3 million
This article is devoted to identification of a new type of legal responsibility (tubercular responsibility) and her legal treatment.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Hypoxia of trophoblast cells is an important regulator of normal development of the placenta. However, some pathological states associated with hypoxia, e.g. preeclampsia, impair the functions of placental cells. Oxyquinoline derivative inhibits HIF-prolyl hydroxylase by stabilizing HIF-1 transcription complex, thus modeling cell response to hypoxia. In human choriocarcinoma cells BeWo b30 (trophoblast model), oxyquinoline increased the expression of a core hypoxia response genes along with up-regulation of NOS3, PDK1, and BNIP3 genes and down-regulation of the PPARGC1B gene. These changes in the expression profile attest to activation of the metabolic cell reprogramming mechanisms aimed at reducing oxygen consumption by enabling the switch from aerobic to anaerobic glucose metabolism and the respective decrease in number of mitochondria. The possibility of practical use of the therapeutic properties of oxyquinoline derivatives is discussed.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine