ВИЧ/СПИД, Эбола и малярия в зеркале африканской социальной рекламы
The paper deals with social advertisement on HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and malaria in African cities. Each of these diseases is treated differently by the authors of advertisements in terms of key messages to citizens, ways of representation and emotional component. Billboards dedicated to Ebola and malaria are logical, consistent and easily understandable: they give a very clear instructions on the ways of protection from the diseases, although the advertising strategies in these two cases differ greatly (Ebola social advertising uses disturbing colors, splashes of red, multiple exclamation points, clearly indicating emergency situation and drawing people’s attention in a very aggressive way, while malaria social advertising is very calm and positive emotionally, it uses positive images, images of smiling people, smiling children, photos of famous people inspiring their fellow citizens to sleep under nets and care about their families). In case of HIV/AIDS various approaches to the problem are shown: examples of ABC strategy, useless abstract billboards without any message except for “Stop AIDS”, billboards widely using manipulation and false logic to motivate people to be tested for HIV. The authors of HIV/AIDS’ social advertisement to some extent face the same challenges, as the actual epidemiologists due to the way of transmission of the disease and it social character, issues of personal choice and sexual behavior, and in many cases they fail to succeed. However, successful examples with clear, efficient and consistent messages are also present.
The problems of identity are no new theme in the research in African politics. In the foreground of interest of political scientists, historians, philosophers, sociologists and experts in African studies the identity appears in particular in connection with the for¬mation of African nations, the existence of nationalities and ethnics, which have direct influence on the operation of the African political system, especially its institutions. The scholars use a great many different approaches, which suggest the importance of these issues in the research in African integration processes and especially the process of development of modern African nations.
This article is about the life of Dmitry Bystroliotov (1901-1975), a Soviet intelligence officer, about his adventures in the Sahara desert and the Congo in the 1930s. Some information about Bystroliotov and about his trip emerged many years after his death, in the 1990s. But even today much of the story remains mysterious. Bystroliotovs first publications although a mystery too appeared in our journal in 1963. We continue the story on the basis of what has come to light since then.
the Soviet intelligence x
Africa can engage with BRICS to achieve trade and sustainable development goals.
Abstract Most studies have shown that when men have higher levels of education they are less likely to beat their wives. Some have also shown that consumption of alcohol tends to be a negative catalyst in provoking inebriated males to commit domestic violence against their intimate partners. Thus, understanding the likely causes and/or associated factors of intimate partner violence with ever more concentrated studies is imperative. Studies in the past have not examined four possible categories of husbands to determine a correlation to intimate partner violence: those that are educated and tend to be alcoholics, those that are educated and tend not to drink alcohol, less-educated individuals who tend to be alcoholics, or those that are less educated and tend to not to be alcoholics. Employing the Demographic and Health Survey data for Nigeria, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, this study has shown the likelihood of each category of husband to perpetrate domestic violence on intimate female parnters in Nigeria, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan using the multivariate logistic regression at a 95% confidence interval. From the research it has been found that a husband’s educational level in and of itself offers no significant correlation to IPV perpetration in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, whereas in Nigeria, educated men were a little more likely to perpetrate IPV compared to men with less education as seen in the following: AOR 1.14, CI 1.02- 1.27; p-value < 0.001. In all, alcoholic men were at least 3 times more likely to commit IPV than nonalcoholic men as suggested in the formula of: CI 3.08-5.56; p-value < 0.001. In Nigeria, men with little or no education, who lived in rural areas and were non-alcoholics were less likely to perpetrate IPV compared to their counterparts in urban areas as suggested by AOR 0.75, CI 0.61-0.93; p-value < 0.01, while alcoholic men with little or no education, who lived in rural areas, showed the strongest proclivity to beat their wives as suggested in AOR 4.37, CI 3.5-5.42; p-value < 0.001. Alcohol seems to outweight the effects of education as an instigator of domestic violence. Its introduction consistently increases the likelihood of IPV and strengthens its statistical significance across sites.
Keywords: Intimate partner violence; husband; education; alcohol; Nigeria; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan
The authors discuss why conflicts emerge and how they are settled in different African regions and countries. Prospects for their peaceful resolution are studied. Basing on case studies, the authors propose theoretical approaches to conflicts.
HIV first appeared in West-Central Africa, then spread to the South, East and West and, at the same time, practically did not reach North Africa. A possible explanation of this pattern could be in the role of Islam which pays particular attention to the prevention of extramarital sexual relations. In addition, one can mention that circumcised men suffer from HIV significantly less frequently than non-circumcised. Against such background, we had certain grounds to expect that Islamic societies would have lower levels of HIV prevalence than non-Islamic. Our cross-cultural tests have supported this hypothesis. The data have been analyzed with power-law regression. We have found a significant (p < .001) and really strong (r = -.747) negative power-law correlation between percentage of Muslims and the HIV prevalence in African countries. Of course, one should take into account that the stigma attached to HIV is also much higher among Muslims and so, Muslims tend to be tested, identified and monitored at lower numbers than those from other religious and cultural backgrounds, which implies that further in-depth research is necessary in order to detect the real relationship between variables in question.
The book contains abstracts of papers presented at the 10th congress of the European Union for Systemics (UES2018) "A Systemic Vision of the Crises: From Optimization to Change Strategy?" which took place in Brussels, in October 15-17, 2018.
Nikolai Vasil’evich Kyuner (1877-1955) is a Russian orientalist. After his graduation with merit from Saint Petersburg State University, he was sent for two years to the Far Eastern countries. After his return he was appointed as a Head of the Department of Historical and Geographical Sciences at Eastern Institute (Vladivostok) in 1904. Since then he became one the first Russian orientalists who held systematic courses on history, geography and ethnography. Author of more than 400 works. This article focuses on a typescript of his unpublished research “Korea in the second half of the 18th century” that is held at the Archive of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Saint-Petersburg). Still unknown to the most of the Russian Koreanists, it nevertheless retains its scientific significance as one of the earliest attempts to appeal to the history of the "golden age" of Korea. The date of its accomplishment is unknown though basing on the analysis of mentioned documents we restore it to the 1931-40s. Our aim is to introduce this typescript to the Russian historians and orientalists and to examine the correctness and actuality of the text. N. V. Kuyner’s typescript consists of seven sections: “Introduction. Sources review”, “General characteristics of the achieved stage of social development of Korea in the second half of the 18th century”, “Great impoverishment of the country”, “Peasantry”, “Cities”, “Mass uprisings”, “Military bureaucratic regime”, “The Great Collection of Laws” (the lawbook). There are excerpts from foreign and domestic publications of the 19th - early 20th centuries, as well as valuable information about the Korean codes of laws, encyclopedias of the 18th century, which have not yet been translated into European languages. The focus is given to the socio-economic situation of Korea in the 18th century; the struggle of court groupings of the 16th-18th centuries and its role in the domestic and foreign policy of the country; the social structure of society and the problems of the peasantry; the role of trade in the development of the Middle Korean society; legal proceedings and legislation, etc. One of the first in Russian Koreanistics, N. V. Kyuner turned to the reasons for the formation of the Korean “parties” named sasaek and the subsequent events, linking the unstable situation in the country to the formal “closing” it for external contacts and the execution of the Crown Prince Sado (1735-1762).