Мусульманское образование и социальная мобильность в мамлюкском султанате Бурджи (1382–1517)
The classic Mamluk era (mid‑13th – early 16th century) was one of the brightest in the history of Egypt, as well as of the entire Middle East. The reign of the sultan Barquq marked the beginning of what is known as the Burji, or Circassian, period (1382–1517). The current paper regards the impact of the sultan Barquq’s policy concerning the Karamanids, on the relationships between the Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire with the neighboring regions. Furthermore, the fitnah concept holds a prominent place in the Islamic political doctrine engaging with other key concepts such as jihad and thaura (revolution). The authors trace the genesis of the fitnah concept in the Middle East history during the seventh – fourteenth centuries. Analysis of rare epistolary artifacts of the Mamluk era forms novelty value of the research. The main issue brought by the authors is to differentiate the connotations of the fitnah concept as a historical and political phenomenon from its religious and legal notion.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.