Модели глобальных цепочек создания стоимости в нефтеперерабатывающей промышленности
The main purpose of the research is to identify key models of oil exporting countries inclusion into oil refining
global value chains. The countries possess high potential of integration into the processing sector with higher value
added, but tend to implement it with different degrees of efficiency. Positive balance of foreign trade in refined oil
products, calculated in value added terms, can be accompanied by dependence of country’s exports on foreign value
added content, and negative balance can be explained by country’s imports of intermediate products with low level
of processing to insure domestic production. Five of eight analyzed oil exporting countries show positive dynamics of
inclusion into oil refining global value chains. The world biggest oil exporter, Saudi Arabia, doesn’t rely on foreign
МИРОВАЯ ЭКОНОМИКА И МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОТНОШЕНИЯ 2020 том 64 № 1
МОДЕЛИ ГЛОБАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕПОЧЕК СОЗДАНИЯ СТОИМОСТИ
value added in its exports, whereas country’s forward participation index in global oil refining sector is very high. USA,
Canada and Norway pursue specific models of integration into oil processing, which are developed in compliance
with countries’ energy policies and aimed to create higher value added. Despite Kazakhstan dependence on Russian
economy the country reduces foreign value-added content in its exports of oil refining products and improves
participation in GVC. Two of the world leading oil exporters, Mexico and Brazil, demonstrate negative dynamics of
inclusion into oil processing sector. High dependence of production on foreign value added, negative balance of foreign
trade and poor integration into complex links within value chains are key parameters of ineffective GVC inclusion. The
case of Russian Federation could be identified as positive integration with some obstacles. High volumes of Russian
exports in oil refining products, positive trade balance in value added terms and high GVC forward participation
index are accompanied by country’s increasing dependence on foreign value-added which forces Russia to rethink its
participation in global refining sector and implement supporting policies.
The increasing resource and transit potential of the Arctic has been drawing more and more attention of both governments of various states and international corporations. Russia shows ambitious plans of Arctic region development. Nevertheless, these plans are closely tied with environmental risks, to which Russia may not be prepared.
The main environmental problems, the Arctic region faces, are: climate change, contamination of sea water with oil and chemical drains, degradation of ecosystems. The rationale to freeze wide-scale Arctic development, primarily oil & gas fields’ development in Russia comes not only from environmental nongovernmental organizations but from economists as well. Negative economic and political conditions of today’s world – is the right moment to do so.
The detailed analysis of territorial and branch structure of investment in the Republic of Kazakhstan by type of investment (private, public, foreign) is gives in article. Identified significant disparities of regional and branch investment, especially in foreign investment. Relationship between the incoming investment volume and the selected indicators of socio - economic development each Kazakhstan`s regions is established.
As energy is becoming one of the crucial concerns in the EU, this volume provides an in-depth analysis and interdisciplinary perspective on European energy security. Given the multidimensional nature of energy security in terms of physical availability, affordability and geopolitical security, it brings together authors from different backgrounds pursuing a distinctly multidisciplinary approach. The authors' different perspectives correspond to the three sections of the book: international relations, which focuses on Eastern EU partners; energy economics, which highlights the current unconventional hydrocarbons revolution and its impact on EU energy and climate strategies; and public policy, which analyzes EU policies in the context.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.