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Модели глобальных цепочек создания стоимости в нефтеперерабатывающей промышленности

Клочко О. А., Григорова А. А.

The main purpose of the research is to identify key models of oil exporting countries inclusion into oil refining
global value chains. The countries possess high potential of integration into the processing sector with higher value
added, but tend to implement it with different degrees of efficiency. Positive balance of foreign trade in refined oil
products, calculated in value added terms, can be accompanied by dependence of country’s exports on foreign value
added content, and negative balance can be explained by country’s imports of intermediate products with low level
of processing to insure domestic production. Five of eight analyzed oil exporting countries show positive dynamics of
inclusion into oil refining global value chains. The world biggest oil exporter, Saudi Arabia, doesn’t rely on foreign
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МИРОВАЯ ЭКОНОМИКА И МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОТНОШЕНИЯ 2020 том 64 № 1
МОДЕЛИ ГЛОБАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕПОЧЕК СОЗДАНИЯ СТОИМОСТИ
value added in its exports, whereas country’s forward participation index in global oil refining sector is very high. USA,
Canada and Norway pursue specific models of integration into oil processing, which are developed in compliance
with countries’ energy policies and aimed to create higher value added. Despite Kazakhstan dependence on Russian
economy the country reduces foreign value-added content in its exports of oil refining products and improves
participation in GVC. Two of the world leading oil exporters, Mexico and Brazil, demonstrate negative dynamics of
inclusion into oil processing sector. High dependence of production on foreign value added, negative balance of foreign
trade and poor integration into complex links within value chains are key parameters of ineffective GVC inclusion. The
case of Russian Federation could be identified as positive integration with some obstacles. High volumes of Russian
exports in oil refining products, positive trade balance in value added terms and high GVC forward participation
index are accompanied by country’s increasing dependence on foreign value-added which forces Russia to rethink its
participation in global refining sector and implement supporting policies.