An investigation of impact of research collaboration on academic performance in Italy
The aim of this paper is to investigate theoretically and empirically the impact of research collaborations on the scientific performance of Italian academic institutions. Data are derived from the international Scopus and Web of Science databases. We consider both quantity (the number of publications made in collaboration) and quality indicators from different databases (using indexes such as IF5Y (5-year impact factor of the journal, Web of Science), SJR (SCImago Journal Rank—key integral indicator of the quality of journals, Scopus), IPP (Impact per Publication, Scopus), AIS (Article Influence Scores, Web of Science), H-index (Google Scholar Hirsch-index metric) to evaluate the Italian case of scientific research. To this end, we develop a theoretical and empirical model to consider endogeneity of explanatory variables, the generalized method of moment estimation. The results suggest that international collaborations have a higher impact on the research quality index in Italy.
The issues of institutionalization and demarcation of the boundaries of academic disciplines in recent years have received a significant interest, within the framework of new waves of epistemological and institutional research and interdisciplinarity. The aim of this work is to model the process of academic discipline’s institutionalization and the structure of its institutions by the case of accounting discipline, in the international and Russian context. Due to the specific nature of the subject, we will use the institutional approach as well as the associated socialnetwork approach within which discipline is viewed as the result of the interaction of individual actors, their groups and networks in the subject discourse. The paper identifies the reasons for interest in demarcating the boundaries of academic disciplines in general, and accounting in particular. The institutional structure of accounting is defined as a set of institutions of accounting practices (techniques and professions) and accounting knowledge (science and the dissemination of knowledge (education and professional communication)). The stages of development of all these institutions are structured; special attention is paid to the institutions of accounting knowledge. It is shown that today accounting, institutionally, is a mature academic discipline, a separate part of economic science and practice. The main features of accountants’ academic community network organization are revealed: its tightness facilitates the exchange of knowledge within the community, but also hinders the search for new objects and methods of research and interdisciplinarity. The features of the development of accounting institutions in the Russian academic environment are discussed. The importance of the results is due to the possibilities of social construction in society and in markets that are provided by all economic disciplines, including accounting. The model of the structure of institutions and networks presented in this work can be extended to other disciplines that will help overcome the existing gap between the content of domestic and foreign ideas about their institutional nature and subject fields, as well as the revision of Russian national educational and research classifications, the content of training programs in economic disciplines, including accounting.
We reviewed the output of research and innovation cooperation between Russia and the US, including publications and patents, in the four prospective areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy during 2007-2011. Joint US-Russia research groups appear to focus primarily on hydrogen energy (fuel cells), followed by solar photovoltaics. The upcoming areas of smart grid and biofuels were left out entirely both from research and innovation collaboration. Russian patents in green energy technologies registered in the US are very low in comparison to those from Japan, Korea, and China.
The paper is focused around two biographical themes. Theme one is history of demolishing Leningrad school of dramatic theory developed in the State Institute of History of Art (GIII) in the 1920s. In 1931, the GIII was closed by a Sovnarkom resolution and transformed into Leningrad division of the State Academy of Art Studies (LOGAIS) established by the same resolution. Theme two is description of the ‘academic traumatism’, traumatic behavior and its biographical effects caused by destruction of a whole scientific trend during the anti-formalism campaign of the early 1930s. Based on archival documents (from the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art), shorthand notes and reports on discussions of the 1930s, we analyze and classify behavioral tactics of initiators, participants and victims of the longstanding stigmatization and catalog absolutory, denunciative and repentant narratives. Several documents are analyzed as climax points of polemics and demolition of the scientific community. The most important of them is the unpublished letter to the editors of Rabochiy i Teatr journal written by Alexander Slonimsky, mostly known in the world of science as a Pushkinist. Through the 1920s–1930s, Slonimsky was one of the key players in development and obliteration of dramatic theory associated primarily with Alexei Gvozdev’s group and with transformation and dissolution of the leading humanities institutes. When compared to the regular reports on scourging and self-recrimination of members of the theatrological ‘clique’, the text of the letter appears to be engrained in the complicated mosaic of measures aimed to discredit Meyerhold’s theater practice and Gvozdev as the leader of the scientific school. Deliberate misinterpretation and corruption of self-descriptions along with reconstruction of biographies are some of the most crucial factors that affected reception of cultural projects and their creators in the 1930s and later.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.