Пространственное распределение намагниченности тонкой пленки ферромагнитного полупроводника
A model for describing the distribution of magnetization over the thickness of a film of a ferromagnetic
semiconductor in an external constant electric field perpendicular to the film surface is considered. The
formulas obtained make it possible to determine the dependence of this distribution on the values of the
physical parameters of the film.
We analyze the role of local geometry in the spin and orbital interaction in transition metal compounds with orbital degeneracy. We stress that the tendency observed in the most studied case (transition metals in O6 octahedra with one common oxygen—common corner of neighboring octahedra—and with ~180° metal–oxygen–metal bonds), that ferro-orbital ordering renders antiferro-spin coupling and, vice versa, antiferro-orbitals give ferro-spin ordering, is not valid in the general case, in particular, for octahedra with a common edge and with ~90° M–O–M bonds. Special attention is paid to the “third case,” that of neighboring octahedra with a common face (three common oxygens), which has largely been disregarded until now, although there are many real systems with this geometry. Interestingly enough, the spin-orbit exchange in this case turns out to be simpler and more symmetric than in the first two cases. We also consider, which form the effective exchange takes for different geometries in the case of strong spin–orbit coupling.
Exchange interaction of electron and positron bunches is simulated using the particle-in-cell method and macroscopic electron and positron wave functions. It is shown that a periodic exchange process with low or high nonlinearity is realized during variations in the electron and positron concentrations.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.