On ultrafilter extensions of first-order models and ultrafilter interpretations
There exist two known canonical concepts of ultrafilter extensions of first-order models; one comes from modal logic and universal algebra, another one from model theory and algebra of ultrafilters, with ultrafilter extensions of semigroups as its main precursor. By a classical fact of general topology, the space of ultrafilters over a discrete space is its largest compactification; the ultrafilter extensions generalize this fact to discrete spaces endowed with an arbitrary first-order structure. Results of such type are referred to as extension theorems.
We offer a uniform approach to both types of extensions based on the idea to extend the extension procedure itself. We propose a generalization of the standard concept of first-order models in which functional and relational symbols are interpreted rather by ultrafilters over sets of functions and relations than by functions and relations themselves, and an appropriate semantic for generalized models of this form. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions under which generalized models are the canonical ultrafilter extensions of some ordinary models, and provide their topological characterization. Then we provide even a wider concept of ultrafilter interpretations together with their semantic based on limits of ultrafilters, and show that it absorbs the former concept as well as the ordinary concept of models. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions under which generalized models in the wide sense are those in the narrow sense, or are the ultrafilter extensions of some ordinary models, and establish extension theorems.