The Technical Efficiency of Russian Retail Companies: An Empirical Analysis
This study focuses on the technical efficiency analysis of Russian retail companies over the period 2011–2015. The main objective is to assess technical efficiency and to reveal factors that affect the efficiency and creditworthiness of this important sector of the Russian economy. Efficiency can be considered a basic measure of creditworthiness because it demonstrates management’s ability to maximise its use of resources. Studying the results enables banks to consider creditworthiness and determine whether to provide retailers with funding for future development. The empirical analysis for this article was performed using Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis methods. Two differing methods can be used to evaluate technical efficiency. The first, SFA, presents a picture of the whole market and formulates general propositions on the creditworthiness of retail companies. The other method, DEA, looks at certain companies and their relative performance in comparison with their competitors. Banks can use a technical efficiency score to monitor the dynamics and potential of each company. In addition to examining tools for evaluating technical efficiency, the study also has practical implications for managers of retail companies in Russia.
What is governmental effectiveness on the regional level? How can the study of regional effectiveness help us understand the performance of the political, social and economic systems of the state as a whole? These questions are very important from both the theoretical and applied perspectives, and the Russian Federation, with its huge and diverse territory, provides extremely rich material to answer them. Serious institutional reforms in the public sector have been implemented in recent years, and the results vary substantially from one region to another. So, in Russia, we can study how general attempts to make government more effective - guided by federal policies - produce particular regional effects, and, conversely, how regions implement federal policy differently. Both views tell us something important about overall governmental quality.
Governmental effectiveness, though in a broad sense one of the oldest issues in political science and philosophy, is currently enjoying a renaissance. The quantity of recent publications and even a special academic structure - The Quality of Government Institute in Sweden – illustrate the current interest. However, researching governmental effectiveness poses serious difficulties, on both the conceptual and instrumental levels. Despite (perhaps even because of) the variety of available theoretical frameworks, the essential core notions of governmental effectiveness and good governance remain murky. Furthermore, scholars disagree about what effectiveness and efficiency mean in a general sense. These issues obviously make it difficult to construct adequate measurement instruments.
The paper seeks to achieve three goals: 1) to review existing approaches and highlight their weak points; 2) to propose a theoretical framework for analyzing governmental effectiveness using appropriate estimation tools; and 3) to present empirical results based on data on public health care from Russia’s regions. Three patterns that ought to correlate - regional efficiency, how reform has been implemented and public opinion – are, instead, inconsistent with each other. Russia’s health-care sector today faces considerable problems with basic, systemic effectiveness.
DEA-analysis is performed based on publicly available data on 94 world largest fashion retailers. Standard clusterization of coefficients obtained from DEA-analysis gives clusters that are analyzed with respect to homogeneity and fit to the types of strategic behavior outlined in strategic management.
The article performs a comparative analysis of the efficiency of G20, BRICS and NIC member countries’ participation in global value chains (GVC) taking into account economic growth, investment activity, global competitiveness and productivity in the period from 2000 to 2009. Efficiency is evaluated by means of the method of data envelopment analysis under constant and variable returns of scale assumptions. The comparison of the efficiency of developed and developing countries participation in GVCs is made, the leaders and outsiders in using the GVCs’ potential are revealed. For the latter the target values of the input and output parameters allowing to reach the efficiency frontier are indicated.
In recent decades, increased economic pressure and growing societal expectations have led to the introduction of performance-based funding models for universities. In this respect, a great scholarly attention has paid to how to evaluate universities performance correctly. This allows national governments to design and apply various taxonomies to facilitate the development of efficient programmes for the advancement of higher education. The wide spread approach used for that purpose is DEA. This paper provides a review of different approaches how to take into account universities heterogeneity when applying DEA to construct the typologies of university by showing statistically their similarities and differences. The authors use the modified DEA proposed by Aleskerov & Petrushchenko (2013) to evaluate performance scores of Russian technical universities. This proposed typology divides universities into specific groups with a description taking into account their heterogeneity.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.