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## Разработка схемы адаптивного конфигурирования загрузки виртуальных машин на основе аппликативного исчисления информационных процессов

This paper examines typical scenarios that require limited system resources shared by several virtual machines. Load balancing rules were developed; these are dependent on the information processes performed by the virtual machines. The productivity of these operations is based on types that allow assessment of the entire system productivity.

This paper is dedicated to a tool whose aim is to facilitate process mining experiments and evaluation of the repair algorithms. Process mining is a set of approaches which provides solutions and algorithms for discovery and analysis of business process models based on event logs. Process mining has three main areas of interest: model discovery, conformance checking and enhancement. The paper focuses on the latter. The goal of enhancement process is to refine an existing process model in order to make it adhere event logs. The particular approach of enhancement considered in the paper is called decomposed model repair. Although the paper is devoted to the implementation part of the approach, theoretical preliminaries essential for domain understanding are provided. Moreover, a typical use case of the tool is shown as well as guides to extending the tool and enriching it with extra algorithms and functionality. Finally, other solutions which can be used for implementation of repair schemes are considered, pros and cons of using them are mentioned.

This paper focuses on the connection between “four-category ontologies” (which are based on Aristotle’s ontological square) and modern type-theoretical semantics. Four- category ontologies make a distinction between four types of entities: substantial universals, substantial particulars, accidental universals and accidental particulars. According to B. Smith, “fantology is a doctrine to the effect that the key to the ontological structure of reality is captured syntactically in the ‘Fa’ ”. Smith argues that predicate logic cannot adequately describe these four types of entities, which are reduced to just two kinds — the general (‘F’) and the particular (‘a’). B. Smith has criticized G. Frege’s predicate logic. He argues that Frege, being the father of modern logic, simultaneously became the father of “fantology” with its ontological commitments. Smith transforms the ontological square to the ontological sextet (which also involves universal and particular events) and proposes a set of predicates for different ontological relations connecting these six types of entities. However, Smith’s approach has a number of limitations: he suggests a theory that describes only predicates of different types as universals. We argue for another formalization for the ontological square’s entities. This approach i based on modern type-theoretical semantics, according to which, the difference between substantial universals and accidental universals can be expressed. In first-order logic the sentences “Socrates is a man” and “Socrates is wise” share the same logical form. However, this fact is not consistent with “ontological square” metaphysics (“being a man” is a substantial universal and “being wise” is an accidental universal). Whereas, according to the type-theoretical approach, relations to accidental universals are expressed by judgments about type (a : A), but relations to accidental universals are expressed by predication (‘P a’).

Process models and graphs are commonly used for modeling and visualization of processes. They may represent sets of objects or events linked with each other in some way. Wide use of models in such languages engenders necessity of tools for creating and editing them. This paper describes the model editor which allows for dealing with classical graphs, Petri nets, finite-state machines and their systems. Additionally, the tool has a list of features like simulation of Petri nets, import and export of models in different storage formats. Carassius is a modular tool which can be extended with, for example, new formalisms. In the paper one can find a detailed description of a couple of layout algorithms that can be used for visualizing Petri nets and graphs. Carassius might be useful for educational and research purposes because of its simplicity, range of features and variety of supported notations.

This paper presents tools aimed at automating the data integration process between different SaaS-applications. Data transformations creation and customization represents a major task in this area. We propose a solution based on type theory and describe an approach to automated transformation construction in form of typed functions.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.

Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.