К вопросу об определении сущности идеологической функции государства
In this article the author defines the essence and defines the ideological function of the state, discusses the basic processes in the framework of realization of ideological function of the state, highlights the structural elements of mechanism of realization of ideological function of the state.
The proposed analysis is devoted to the peculiarities of state ideology in Russia in the 2010s. The main hypothesis formulated in this work is that since 2012, there has been a sharp turn to right-wing conservatism in the state policy of the Russian Federation, and that the concepts of active militarism and isolationism have become the prevailing ideology of official discourse. Initially, this ideology was used more as an effective tool to mobilize the population, but since 2014, it has begun to drive Russia’s foreign policy and Russian politicians relied on it to “justify” both the annexation of Crimea and the wider Russian-Ukrainian conflict.
In our opinion, after examining the internal logic of this ideology, one can understand the basic program of the domestic and foreign policy that Russian political elites have been following since 2012. We see this program as an outgrowth of this ideology. It creates a picture of the world according to which this sort of conflict-generating behavior is not only justified but unavoidable. As it becomes a social fact, this ideological rhetoric transforms into a plan of action which is implemented by the political elites who adhere to it.
In addition, we will show that although this ideological project still appears to be dominant in both the official and public spheres, it would be reductive to exclude other trends from an analysis of the political situation in Russia. Although the alternative points of view that exist are still not strong enough to develop into full-scale political structures and ideological concepts, they have the potential for growth. At the same time, the dominant ideology of active militarism and isolationism is too rigid to occupy a leading position in federal policy for long.
The aim of the presented article is to consider the conditions in which intuitive conjectures in historical constructions transform into a scientific hypothesis. In order to prove it, the author takes into account the procedure of identifying verbal texts which underlie the descriptions found in the historical source, and which explicitly reveal the meaning of the retrospective information. The methodological basis of the study is the hermeneutic approach. One of the unique sources was taken as an example: the only preserved description of the Oprichny Palace, left by the German oprichnik Heinrich Staden. A. L. Yurganov connected a number of details of this description (the square form of the palace, the three gates facing north, south and east, the absence of the western gate, the fact that only the Grand Duke could enter through the eastern gate, etc.) with the City of God described by the prophet Ezekiel. However, Yurganov tried to comprehend the details of the Staden’s description through the Revelation of John the Theologian in order to emphasize the connection of the Palace with the eschatological expectations of the 16th century. Yurganov simply did not notice a number of other details (the coincidence of dimensions, the topography of the Palace, the dates of the creation of the Palace and the designation of the oprichnina, the connection of the Palace with other buildings that appeared in Moscow at the same time, etc.). All of this raised serious doubts about the accuracy of the proposed interpretation of Staden’s description of the Oprichny Palace, if not discredited Yurganov’s idea. These details receive correct interpretation when we turn to the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel and to the Third Book of Enoch. They are also the additional sources on which the article is based. A systematic analysis of the details of the Oprichny Palace makes it possible to assume with full justification that the oprichnina was a preparation for the End of the World, which was expected in 7077 (1569). Ivan the Terrible assumed the functions of the Savior, believing that he was the Messiah himself. The burning of the Oprichny Palace by the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray in 1572 was a sign for Ivan IV that God did not accept this claim. Oprichnina was abolished and the very word oprichnina was prohibited. Thus, a systematic appeal to the correct sources makes it possible to transform a clever assumption into a scientific hypothesis.
The review considers a recent collection of papers dealing with the problems of state ideology in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia