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## Exact upscaling for transport of size distributed colloids

The article investigates one‐dimensional (1D) suspension‐colloidal transport of size distributed particles with particle attachment. A population balance approach is presented for computing the particle transport and capture by porous media. The occupied area of each attached particle is particle‐size dependent. The main model assumption is the retention‐rate dependency of the overall vacancy concentration for all particle sizes. For the first time, we derive an exact averaging (upscaling) procedure resulting in a closed system of large‐scale equations for average concentrations of suspended and retained particles, and of occupied rock surface area. The resulting large‐scale 3x3 system significantly differs from the traditional 2x2 deep bed filtration model. However, the traditional model becomes a particular case that corresponds to an equal occupied area for all particles. The averaging yields the appearance of two empirical suspension and site‐occupation functions, which govern the kinetics of particle retention and site occupation, respectively. 1D flow problems for the averaged equations are essentially non‐linear. However, they allow for exact solutions. We derive novel exact solutions for three 1D problems: continuous injection of particulate colloidal suspension, injection of colloidal suspension bank with particle‐free chase drive, and fines migration induced by high‐rate flows. The analytical model for continuous injection closely matches three series of laboratory tests on nano‐fluid transport.

By analyzing the logs of corporate e-mail networks we found a number of patterns, showing how the size of ego-networks of individual employees changes on a day by day basis. We proposed a simple model that adequately describes the observed time dependence of an employee's "social circle". Comparison of experimental data with the theoretical model showed that employees are divided into two groups - with fast and slow changes in their social circles, respectively. We believe that the presence of these groups reflects both project-type and process-type of employees' activities. Comparison of data obtained before and during the global economic crisis has shown that the crisis led to an actual reduction in project-type activities.

The considered model of the failure rate of CMOS VHSIC design proposed in the article Piskun G.A., Alekseev V.F., "Improvement of mathematical models calculating of CMOS VLSIC taking into account features of impact of electrostatic discharge", published in the first issue of the journal "Technologies of electromagnetic compatibility" for the year 2016. It is shown that the authors claim that this model "...will more accurately assess the reliability of CMOS VHSIC design" is fundamentally flawed and its application will inevitably lead to inadequate results. Alternatively, the proposed model of the failure rate of CMOS VHSIC design, which also allows to take into account the views of ESD, but based on the use of resistance characteristics of CMOS VHSIC to the effects of ESD.

Simulating principles of proposed attribute (A) and object-attribute (OA) architectures of computer systems (CS) that implement the dataflow execution model, and the results of a dataflow-supercomputer system simulation are described. A new formalism of "Attribute Nets" (A-nets) is proposed for mathematical modeling of dataflow-CS that differs significantly from *apparatus* of *Petri Nets*. This formalism lays foundation for the OA-programming&simulation environment of a dataflow-CS which is used in development programming and test of the OA-supercomputer system.

Plane periodic oscillations of an infinitely deep fluid are studied in the case of a nonuniform pressure distribution over its free surface. The fluid flow is governed by an exact solution of the Euler equations in the Lagrangian variables. The dynamics of an oscillating standing soliton are described, together with the scenario of the soliton evolution and the birth of a wave of an anomalously large amplitude against the background of the homogeneous Gerstner undulation (freak wave model). All the flows are nonuniformly vortical.

Though the issue of economic cycles has been subject to numerous studies, this problem has retained its high importance. What is more, the current crisis has confirmed in an extremely convincing way the point that, notwithstanding all the successes achieved by many states in their countercyclical policies, no economy is guaranteed against uncontrollable upswings and unexpected crises and recessions that tend to follow such upswings. In addition to this, the financial globalization has increased substantially the risks of such cyclical fluctuations.

The notion of economic cycles is regarded ambiguously in economic science. In modern theories, business cycles are frequently defined as fluctuations of actual output around its potential value which is achieved in full employment conditions (see, *e.g.*, Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). However, quite frequently economics does not achieve on the rise the potential GDP volume when a recession phase starts (such situations are described in more detail in Гринин, Коротаев 2009а: ch. 1). Thus, *economic cycle*, in our opinion, *can be defined as periodical fluctuation around medium line of production volume, where repeating phases of rise and decrease can be specified*.

In the model that we propose below we have tried to briefly describe the main features of medium-term cycles of business activity, or business cycles (7–11 years)[1] that are also known as Juglar cycles after the prominent 19th-century French economist Clement Juglar (1819–1905), who investigated these cycles in detail (Juglar 1862, 1889).[2]

[1] Many economists maintain that business cycles are quite regular with the characteristic period of 7–11 years. However, some suggest that economic cycles are irregular (see, for example, Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). As we suppose, comparative regularity of business cycles is observed rather at the World System scale than in every country taken separately. This corroborates the important role of exogenous factors for the rise and progress of business cycles (for more detail see below).

[2] Medium-term cycles (7–11 years) were first named after Juglar in works by Joseph Schumpeter, who developed the typology of different-length business-cycles (Schumpeter 1939, 1954; see also Kwasnisсki 2008).

The volume contains articles of scientific staff and faculty of the Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics and Scientific-Educational Center of computer modeling of unique buildings and complexes of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), devoted to actual problems of applied mathematics and computational mechanics.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.