STM and DFT Study of Chlorine Adsorption on the Ag(111)-p(4x4)-O Surface
Coadsorption of chlorine and oxygen on the Ag(111) surface has been studied with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. Room-temperature adsorption of chlorine onto the Ag(111)-p(4 × 4)–O surface leads to the appearance of new bright objects located between protrusions of the 4 × 4 reconstruction. As chlorine adsorbs, objects form “rosettes” around corner holes. This configuration coincides with the configuration of the chlorine atoms in the Ag(111)-(3 × 3)–Cl reconstruction structure. We conclude that the adsorption of chlorine on the Ag(111)-p(4 × 4)–O surface occurs dissociatively, with chlorine atoms displacing oxygen atoms from the 4-fold positions. Adsorption of chlorine at 77 K results in the formation of the mixed Cl–O species on the Ag6 triangles of the p(4 × 4) reconstruction. Both scenarios of chlorine adsorption are unexpected and cannot be explained within a commonly accepted Ag6 model of the p(4 × 4) reconstruction.
The article is the historical and legal research of the evolution of monetary circulation in the Moscow state and the Russian Empire in the XVII – XVIII centuries. The main directions of the monetary policy and the notion «monetary regalia» are analyzed. The author makes conclusions about the existence of the negative trend throughout the period reviewed — use monetary regalia for fiscal purposes.
The article is the historical and legal research of the evolution of monetary circulation in the Russian Empire from the beginning of the 19th century until 1917. The author analyzes the problems of money circulation through significant historical events: the Great Patriotic War of 1812, the Russian-Turkish War, the Russian-Japanese War, the First World War. Paticular attention is paid to the historical experience of the introduction of platinum coins and formation of the gold standard in the reform of 1895—1897.
Iodine adsorption on the Ni(111) surface has been studied in ultra-high vacuum conditions with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At the first stage of adsorption, iodine was found to form a simple commensurate v3×v3R30∘ structure at the coverage of 0.33 ML. According to DFT calculations, all iodine atoms in the v3×v3R30∘ structure occupy fcc hollow sites. Increase of the coverage in the range of (0.333 ML<θ <0.364 ML) results in the uniaxial compression of the iodine lattice and the formation of the high-order commensurate structure 11×3R30∘. The mechanism of compression involves the formation and the development of the striped super-heavy domain wall network. Further iodine dosing gives rise to nucleation and growth of flat 2D islands of surface nickel iodide. Atomic resolution STM images of iodide islands, in addition to atomic modulation, exhibit clear visible moiré-like superstructures with a period about 26Å. The origin of the moiré-patterns was explained by the incommensurability of lattices of the surface nickel iodide and underlying Ni(111).
The work carried out research on the use of pulsed high-temperature plasma for the preparation of compounds of immiscible materials. The technique of irradiation on materials installation type Plasma Focus.
The question about possibilities to use Twitter users’ moods to increase accuracy of stock price movement prediction draws attention of many researchers. In this paper we examine the possibility of analyzing Twitter users’ mood to improve accuracy of predictions for Gold and Silver stock market prices. We used a lexicon-based approach to categorize the mood of users expressed in Twitter posts and to analyze 755 million tweets downloaded from February 13, 2013 to September 29, 2013. As forecasting technique, we select Support Vector Machines (SVM), which have shown the best performance. Results of SVM application to prediction the stock market prices for Gold and Silver are discussed.
This chapter presents a review of the experimental and theoretical investigations of halogen interaction with metal surfaces. The emphasis is on the recent measurements performed with scanning tunneling microscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. The surface structures formed on metal surface after halogen action are classified into three groups: chemisorbed monolayer, surface halide, bulk-like halide. Formation of monolayer structures is described in terms of surface phase transitions. Surface halide phases are considered as intermediates between chemisorbed halogen and bulk halide. The general conclusion is that, for a number of systems, the picture of halogen/metal interaction is still far from complete.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.