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## Efficient Bayesian computation by proximal Markov chain Monte Carlo: when Langevin meets Moreau

Modern imaging methods rely strongly on Bayesian inference techniques to solve challenging imaging problems. Currently, the predominant Bayesian computation approach is convex optimization, which scales very efficiently to high-dimensional image models and delivers accurate point estimation results. However, in order to perform more complex analyses, for example, image uncertainty quantification or model selection, it is necessary to use more computationally intensive Bayesian computation techniques such as Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. This paper presents a new and highly efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to perform Bayesian computation for high-dimensional models that are log-concave and nonsmooth, a class of models that is central in imaging sciences. The methodology is based on a regularized unadjusted Langevin algorithm that exploits tools from convex analysis, namely, Moreau--Yoshida envelopes and proximal operators, to construct Markov chains with favorable convergence properties. In addition to scaling efficiently to high-dimensions, the method is straightforward to apply to models that are currently solved by using proximal optimization algorithms. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of the proposed methodology, including asymptotic and nonasymptotic convergence results with easily verifiable conditions, and explicit bounds on the convergence rates. The proposed methodology is demonstrated with four experiments related to image deconvolution and tomographic reconstruction with total-variation and $\ell_1$ priors, where we conduct a range of challenging Bayesian analyses related to uncertainty quantification, hypothesis testing, and model selection in the absence of ground truth.

In this paper we consider the task of inner objects mapping for the building with a bunch of moving around it autonomous agents which use narrow beam of radio waves using WiFi frequency (2.4 GHz). Linear model of pixel-wise radio waves attenuation is considered. SIRT algorithm with TV and Tikhonov regularizations is used for the task of tomography reconstruction. Properties of the presented model are studied during simulation using synthetic data consisting of 8 buildings with inner object with different shapes. Dependency between mapping quality and transmission power is found. Simulation results confirm suggested approachs usability

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

The classical parametric and semiparametric Bernstein – von Mises (BvM) results are reconsidered in a non-classical setup allowing finite samples and model misspecification. In the case of a finite dimensional nuisance parameter we obtain an upper bound on the error of Gaussian approximation of the posterior distribution for the target parameter which is explicit in the dimension of the nuisance and target parameters. This helps to identify the so called critical dimension p of the full parameter for which the BvM result is applicable. In the important i.i.d. case, we show that the condition “p^3 / n is small” is sufficient for the BvM result to be valid under general assumptions on the model. We also provide an example of a model with the phase transition effect: the statement of the BvM theorem fails when the dimension pn approaches n^{1/3} . The results are extended to the case of infinite dimensional parameters with the nuisance parameter from a Sobolev class.

We consider convex optimization problems with the objective function having Lipshitz-continuous p-th order derivative, where p ≥ 1. We propose a new tensor method, which closes the gap between the lower O ε − 2 3p+1 and upper O ε − 1 p+1 iteration complexity bounds for this class of optimization problems. We also consider uniformly convex functions, and show how the proposed method can be accelerated under this additional assumption. Moreover, we introduce a p-th order condition number which naturally arises in the complexity analysis of tensor methods under this assumption. Finally, we make a numerical study of the proposed optimal method and show that in practice it is faster than the best known accelerated tensor method. We also compare the performance of tensor methods for p = 2 and p = 3 and show that the 3rd-order method is superior to the 2nd-order method in practice. Keywords: Convex optimization, unconstrained minimization, tensor methods, worst-case complexity, global complexity bounds, condition number.

In this article, we consider the problem of sampling from a probability measure π having a density on R d proportional to x↦ e− U (x). The Euler discretization of the Langevin stochastic differential equation (SDE) is known to be unstable, when the potential U is superlinear. Based on previous works on the taming of superlinear drift coefficients for SDEs, we introduce the Tamed Unadjusted Langevin Algorithm (TULA) and obtain non-asymptotic bounds in V-total variation norm and Wasserstein distance of order 2 between the iterates of TULA and π, as well as weak error bounds. Numerical experiments are presented which support our findings.

We study the complexity of approximating the Wasserstein barycenter of m discrete measures, or histograms of size n, by contrasting two alternative approaches that use entropic regularization. The first approach is based on the Iterative Bregman Projections (IBP) algorithm for which our novel analysis gives a complexity bound proportional to $m n^2 / \epsilon^2$ to approximate the original non-regularized barycenter. On the other hand, using an approach based on accelerated gradient descent, we obtain a complexity proportional to $m n^2 / \epsilon$. As a byproduct, we show that the regularization parameter in both approaches has to be proportional to $\epsilon$, which causes instability of both algorithms when the desired accuracy is high. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel proximal-IBP algorithm, which can be seen as a proximal gradient method, which uses IBP on each iteration to make a proximal step. We also consider the question of scalability of these algorithms using approaches from distributed optimization and show that the first algorithm can be implemented in a centralized distributed setting (master/slave), while the second one is amenable to a more general decentralized distributed setting with an arbitrary network topology.

We study properties of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of classical spin models with local updates. We derive analytic expressions for the mean value of the acceptance rate of single-spin-flip algorithms for the one-dimensional Ising model. We find that for the Metropolis algorithm the average acceptance rate is a linear function of energy. We further provide numerical results for the energy dependence of the average acceptance rate for the three- and four-state Potts model, and the XY model in one and two spatial dimensions. In all cases, the acceptance rate is an almost linear function of the energy in the critical region. The variance of the acceptance rate is studied as a function of the specific heat. While the specific heat develops a singularity in the vicinity of a phase transition, the variance of the acceptance rate stays finite.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.