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## Analytical Number Theory and the Energy of Transition of the Bose Gas to the Fermi gas. Critical Lines as Boundaries of the Noninteracting Gas (an Analog of the Bose Gas in Classical Thermodynamics)

It is proved that the distributions of the analytic number theory coincide with

the Bose–Einstein distribution. The transition of the boson branch of the decomposition of

an integer number (with repeated terms) into the fermion branch (without repeated terms) is

described in detail near a small activity. Analytic formulas for the energy of transition of the

Bose gas to the Fermi gas are obtained in the three-dimensional case and the nine-dimensional

case (diatomic molecule). The radius of the Bose gas “jump” in the transition to the Fermi

gas is calculated. The relationship between the constructed concept and the thermodynamics

is described based on the obtained experimental values of gas characteristics on critical lines.

This volume contains a collection of survey and research articles from the special program and international conference on Dynamics and Numbers held at the Max-Planck Institute for Mathematics in Bonn, Germany in 2014.

The papers reflect the great diversity and depth of the interaction between number theory and dynamical systems and geometry in particular. Topics covered in this volume include symbolic dynamics, Bratelli diagrams, geometry of laminations, entropy, Nielsen theory, recurrence, topology of the moduli space of interval maps, and specification properties. - See more at: http://bookstore.ams.org/conm-669#sthash.yHCBy69L.dpuf

We study the moduli spaces of polarised irreducible symplectic manifolds. By a comparison with locally symmetric varieties of orthogonal type of dimension 20, we show that the moduli space of 2d polarised (split type) symplectic manifolds which are deformation equivalent to degree 2 Hilbert schemes of a K3 surface is of general type if d is at least 12.

To resolve some geometric problems we give a new, clear, formulation of Siegel's formula for the number of representationс natural numbers by positive definite quadratic forms of odd rank. It may be expressed either in terms of Zagier L-functions or in terms of the H.~Cohen numbers.

The order statistics and the empirical mathematical expectation (also called the estimate of mathematical expectation in the literature) are considered in the case of infinitely increasing random variables. The Kolmogorov concept which he used in the theory of complexity and the relationship with thermodynamics which was pointed out already by Poincar\'e are considered. We compare the mathematical expectation (which is a generalization of the notion of arithmetical mean, and is generally equal to infinity for any increasing sequence of random variables) with the notion of temperature in thermodynamics similarly to nonstandard analysis. It is shown that there is a relationship with the Van-der-Waals law of corresponding states. A number of applications of this concept in economics, in internet information network, and self-teaching systems are also considered.

In this paper, we construct a new distribution corresponding to a real noble gas as well as the equation of state for it.

A method based on the spectral analysis of thermowave oscillations formed under the effect of radiation of lasers operated in a periodic pulsed mode is developed for investigating the state of the interface of multilayered systems. The method is based on high sensitivity of the shape of the oscillating component of the pyrometric signal to adhesion characteristics of the phase interface. The shape of the signal is quantitatively estimated using the correlation coefficient (for a film–interface system) and the transfer function (for multilayered specimens).

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.