The problem of viscous compressible fluid flow in an axially symmetric pipe with small periodic irregularities on the wall is considered for large Reynolds numbers. An asymptotic solution with double-deck structure of the boundary layer and unperturbed core flow is obtained. Numerical investigations of the influence of the density of the core flow on the flow behavior in the near-wall region are presented.

For quantum, as well classical slow-fast systems, we develop a general method which allows one to compute the adiabatic invariant (approximate integral of motion), its symmetries, the adiabatic guiding center coordinates and the effective scalar Hamiltonian in all orders of a small parameter. The scheme does not exploit eigenvectors or diagonalization but is based on using the ideas of isospectral deformation and zero-curvature equations, where the role of "time" is played by the adiabatic (quantization) parameter. The algorithm includes the construction of the zero-curvature adiabatic connection and its splitting generated by averaging up to an arbitrary order in the small parameter.

For slow–fast Hamiltonian systems with one fast degree of freedom, we describe the construction of the complete adiabatic invariant and the complete adiabatic term at once in all asymptotic orders by using the small parameter “dynamics” and parallel translations in the phase space.

We consider the notion of number of degrees of freedom in number theory and thermodynamics. This notion is applied to notions of terminology such as terms, slogans, themes, rules, and regulations. Prohibitions are interpreted as restrictions on the number of degrees of freedom. We present a theorem on the small number of degrees of freedom as a consequence of the generalized partitio numerorum problem. We analyze the relationship between thermodynamically ideal liquids with the lexical background that a term acquires in the process of communication. Examples showing how this background may be enhanced are considered. We discuss the question of the coagulation of drops in connection with the forecast of analogs of the gas-ideal liquid phase transition in social-political processes.

An analytic description of Aharonov – Bohm oscillation of the Coulomb potential of an immovable point charge in a magnetized Electronic gas of quantum cylinder is given.

This paper presents a new approach to thermodynamics based on two “first principles”: the theory of partitions of integers and Earth gravitation. The self-correlated equation obtained by the author from Gentile statistics is used to describe the effect of accumulation of energy at the moment of passage from the boson branch of the partition to its fermion branch. The branch point in the passage from bosons to fermions is interpreted as an analog of a jump of the spin. A hidden parameter – the measurement time as time of the G¨odel numbering – is introduced.

In the paper, a new construction of the theory of partitions of integers is proposed. The author defines entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of partitions of a number M into natural summands with repetitions allowed p(M) and repetitions forbidden q(M). The passage from ln p(M) to lnq(M) through the mesoscopic values M → 0 is studied. The topological transition from the mesoscopic lower levels of the Bohr–Kalckar construction to the macroscopic levels corresponding to the critical number of neutrons according to the consequence of Einstein’s inequality M <= cNc, where c is determined for the particles of the given atomic nucleus. The role of quantum mechanics in establishing the new world outlook in physics is analyzed. It is pointed out that the main equations of thermodynamics in the volume “Statistical Physics” of the Landau–Lifshits treatise are obtained without appealing to the so-called “three main principles of thermodynamics”. It is also pointed out that Niels Bohr’s liquid model of the nucleus does not involve any interaction of particles in the form of attraction and is based on the presence of a common potential trough for all elements of the nucleus. The author constructs a new approach to thermodynamics, using quantum mechanics and the Earth’s gravitational attraction as a common potential trough.

It is proved that the distributions of the analytic number theory coincide with the Bose–Einstein distribution. The transition of the boson branch of the decomposition of an integer number (with repeated terms) into the fermion branch (without repeated terms) is described in detail near a small activity. Analytic formulas for the energy of transition of the Bose gas to the Fermi gas are obtained in the three-dimensional case and the nine-dimensional case (diatomic molecule). The radius of the Bose gas “jump” in the transition to the Fermi gas is calculated. The relationship between the constructed concept and the thermodynamics is described based on the obtained experimental values of gas characteristics on critical lines.

Formulas for the asymptotics of some class of integrals of rapidly oscillating functions that generalize the well-known stationary phase method, which were obtained in the previous paper of the author, are applied to integrals arising in the well-known tsunami hydrodynamic piston model in the case of a constant pool bottom. As a result, asymptotic formulas are obtained for the head part of the wave for large values of the time elapsed since the occurrence of the tsunami. These formulas contain some special reference integrals and have different forms depending on combinations of wave and time parameters.

In the paper, using relatively simple formulas derived in the abstract perturbation theory of selfadjoint operators, we obtain explicit asymptotic formulas for a family of elliptic operators of Laplace type that arise in linear problems with rapidly oscillating coefficients.

We study the asymptotic behavior of a finite network of oscillators (harmonic or anharmonic) coupled to a number of deterministic Lagrangian thermostats of *finite* energy. In particular, we consider a chain of oscillators interacting with two thermostats situated at the boundary of the chain. Under appropriate assumptions, we prove that the vector (*p*, *q*) of moments and coordinates of the oscillators in the network satisfies (*p*, *q*)(*t*) → (0, *q* *_c* ) as *t* → ∞, where *q**_c* is a critical point of some effective potential, so that the oscillators just stop. Moreover, we argue that the energy transport in the system stops as well without reaching thermal equilibrium. This result is in contrast to the situation when the energies of the thermostats are *infinite*, studied for a similar system in [14] and subsequent works, where the convergence to a nontrivial limiting regime was established.

The proof is based on a method developed in [22], where it was observed that the thermostats produce some effective dissipation despite the Lagrangian nature of the system.

An approach to the physical language, pointed out by Poincare in a philosophical work, is to link probability theory to arithmetic and thermodynamics. We follow this program in the part concerning a generalization of probability theory.

A linear problem for propagation of gravity waves in the basin having the bottom of a form of a smooth background with added rapid oscillations is considered. The formulas derived below are asymptotic ones; they are quite formal, and we do not discuss the problem concerning their uniformness with respect to these parameters.

In this paper, we consider the spectral problem for the magnetic Schrödinger operator on the 2-D plane (*x*1*, x*2) with the constant magnetic field normal to this plane and with the potential *V *having the form of a harmonic oscillator in the direction *x*1 and periodic with respect to variable *x*2. Such a potential can be used for modeling a long molecule. We assume that the magnetic field is quite large, this allows us to make the averaging and to reduce the original problem to a spectral problem for a 1-D Schrödinger operator with effective periodic potential. Then we use semiclassical analysis to construct the band spectrum of this reduced operator, as well as that of the original 2-D magnetic Schrödinger operator.

We consider a charge in a general electromagnetic trap near a hyperbolic stationary point. The two-dimensional trap Hamiltonian is a sum of hyperbolic harmonic part and higher order anharmonic corrections. We suppose that two frequencies of the harmonic part are under a resonance 1 : (-1). In this case, anharmonic terms define the dynamics and an effective Hamiltonian on the space of motion constants of the ideal harmonic operator. We show that if the anharmonic part is symmetric, then the effective Hamiltonian has unstable equilibriums and separatrix, witch define distinct classically allowed regions in the space of mouton constants of the ideal trap. The corresponding stationary tates of the trapped charge can form a bi-orbital states, that is a state localized on two distinct classical trajectories. We obtain semiclassical asymptotics of the energy splitting corresponding to the charge tunneling between these two trajectories in the phase space and express it in terms of complex instantons.

We introduce a notion of semiclassical bi-states. They arise from pairs of eigenstates corresponding to tunnel-splitted eigenlevels and generate 2-level subsystems in a given quantum system. As an example, we consider the planar Penning trap with rectangular electrodes assuming the 3:(-1) resonance regime of charge dynamics. We demonstrate that under small deviation of the rectangular shape of electrodes from the square shape (symmetry breaking), there appear instanton pseudoparticles, semiclassical bi-states and 2-level subsystems in such a quantum trap.

Boyle temperature is interpreted as the temperature at which the formation of dimers becomes impossible. To Irving Fisher's correspondence principle we assign two more quantities: the number of degrees of freedom, and credit. We determine the danger level of the mass of money *M *when the mutual trust between economic agents begins to fall.

In this paper, general questions concerning equilibrium and non-equilibrium states are discussed. Using the Van-der-Waals model, the relationship between Gentile statistics and non-ideal gas is demonstrated. The second virial coefficient is expressed in terms of collective degrees of freedom. The admissible cluster size at given temperature is determined.

For the 3:(-1) resonance Penning trap, we describe the algebra of symmetries which turns out to be a non-Lie algebra with cubic commutation relations. The irreducible representations and coherent states of this algebra are constructed explicitly. The perturbing inhomogeneous magnetic field of Ioffe type, after double quantum averaging, generates an effective Hamiltonian of the trap. In the irreducible representation, this Hamiltonian becomes a second-order ordinary differential operator of the Heun type.

An approach to the physical language, pointed out by Poincare in a philosophical work, is to link probability theory to arithmetic and thermodynamics. We follow this program in the part concerning a generalization of probability theory.