Реконструкция из ничего: О некоторых принципах гуманитарной эвристичности
This article examines the formation of E.Auerbach's conception of methods in philology. We argue that the source of E.Auerbach's conception is works of Fosser and his followers. The article analyzes E.Auerbach's conception of method from his classic book "Mimesis" to later works.
The article illustrates the explicit and implicit correlations between general notions of Russian formalism and its latest subversions in Lectures on Structuralist Poetics by Yuri Lotman. Declared as a manifesto of new approaches to literary structure (above all, verse), Lotman’s work contains a lot of conceptual revisions of formalism, at the same time presenting itself as its successful overcoming. The strong demand to negate all predecessors was canonized by the formalists themselves and, as it is seen in Lotman’s arguments, remained actual for further philological generations.
The article raises topical today the problem of professionalism and ethics of the historian in the conditions of the authoritarian regime, the extreme (totalitarian) the variant of which was the period of Stalinism. The epoch of formation of the personality cult and mass repressions could not affect the position of historical science and the status of the professional community of historians. The end of the 1920-ies - 1930-ies demonstrate a clash of interests of different groups of historians, initiated and encouraged by the authorities. The result of the permanent ogromnyh campaigns and purges, which involved representatives of different scientific schools and political groupings, was the loss of the historical shop their scientific independence and the tradition of high professional ethics.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.