Зарождение и развитие феномена надвратных храмов в византийском мире
his paper discusses to a hall church located over the southern gate of Eski-Kermen. It was built when the gate tower was dismantled, and was replaced in the twelfth or thirteenth century by a chapel adjoining it from the west. Against N. V. Dneprovsky, there is no reason to attribute it to a Studite monastery. Gate churches appeared in Western Europe in the early twelfth century, and in Rus in the mid-eleventh century. Against V. V. Sedov, in Byzantium they are less in number; the Eski-Kermen chapel was almost simultaneous to the churches over the Chalke gate in Constantinople and over two gates of the monastery in Syrmaina in the Pontos, with apotropaical function.