Microprobe for the Thermal Analysis of Crude Oil Coupled to Photoionization Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry
We present the simple microprobe for the investigation of crude oil by a thermal desorption photoionization coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The droplet of crude oil was placed on the heating element with controllable temperature. The temperature was linearly increased, and crude oil vapors were ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp and detected by Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Use of modified Orbitrap allowed introduction of the heating element and VUV lamp directly into the ion funnel and performing experiment not only at atmosphere pressure but also at 20, 10, and 5 torr. We observed that at high pressure protonated CHN compounds dominate in the spectrum, while at the low pressure CH compounds dominate. Similar to previously reported thermogravimetry coupled to photoionization or chemical ionization mass spectrometry systems we were able to separate compounds with different desorption energy and reliably detect low-abundant compounds. Also, we were able to determine the desorption temperature for each compound of the crude oil. We found that temperature of desorption increases linearly with m/z for compounds that belong to the same homology series (same Kendrick mass defect). This may serve as indirect evidence that such compounds differ only by the length of aliphatic chains attached to some basic structure.
The article analyzes the main results of the work of railway transport in the field of transportation of goods of the fuel and energy complex (FEC) in 2018. and also considered the dynamics of traffic in 2000-2018. The most important factors influencing the dynamics of railway transportation of coal and oil cargoes are shown. The prospects for the transportation of goods by the fuel and energy complex to 2025 are considered.
The chapter relates the history of economic development of the African continent and analuses its economic problems today.
The article analyzes the main results of the work of railway transport in the field of freight transportation in 2018, studies the dynamics of the loading of the most important goods transported by railways and considers the prospects until 2025.
The Arctic region is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable to climate change. The dramatic melting of Arctic ice has several negative consequences for the whole ecosystem as well as for a way of life of native people but it also creates new opportunities for the region. First, it opens up potential for exploitation of large deposits of natural resources such oil and gas. Second, it shrinks Arctic shipping routes which offer significant economic savings for many countries. These benefits has already attracted many countries, both Arctic and non-Arctic, thus resulting in potential conflict of interests. In our paper we present a mathematical approach to the problem of conflict resolution in the Arctic. First, we propose an approach how the level of interest in each part of the region should be evaluated with respect to main resources - oil, gas, fish and maritime routes. Second, we present several models of areas allocation to resolve the problem of conflict resolution. As a result, we applied several scenarios of areas allocation, evaluated their efficiency based on the total satisfaction level and identified conflict zones in the Arctic.
This book constitutes the joint refereed proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Next Generation Wired/Wireless Advanced Networks and Systems, NEW2AN 2018, the 11th Conference on Internet of Things and Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2018. The 64 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 186 submissions. The papers of NEW2AN focus on advanced wireless networking and applications; lower-layer communication enablers; novel and innovative approaches to performance and efficiency analysis of ad-hoc and machine-type systems; employed game-theoretical formulations, Markov chain models, and advanced queuing theory; grapheme and other emerging material, photonics and optics; generation and processing of signals; and business aspects. The ruSMART papers deal with fully-customized applications and services.
We have performed a comparative analysis of the bio-oil produced by thermal liquefaction of microalgae in different solvents using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry and GC-MS approach. Water, methanol, ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, toluene, and hexane were used as solvents in which the liquefaction was performed. It was observed that all resulting oils demonstrate a considerable degree of similarity. For all samples, compounds containing 1 and 2 nitrogen atoms dominated in the positive ESI spectra, while a relative contribution of other compounds was small. In negative ESI mode, compounds having 2 to 7 oxygens were observed. Statistical analysis revealed that products can be combined in two groups depending on the solvent used for the liquefaction. To the first group, we can attribute the products obtained by using protic (alcohols) and to the second by using aprotic (acetonitrile, toluene) solvents. Nevertheless, based on our results, we concluded that solvent possesses a minor impact on molecular composition of bio-oil. We suggested that the driving force of the liquefaction reaction is the thermal dehydration of the carbohydrate in algae, resulting in water formation, which could be the trigger of the producing of bio-oil. To prove this hypothesis, we performed the reaction with the dry algae in the absence of the solvent and observed the formation of bio-oil.
This book constitutes the joint refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Next Generation Wired/Wireless Advanced Networks and Systems, NEW2AN 2017, the 10th Conference on Internet of Things and Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2017. The 71 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 202 submissions. The papers of NEW2AN focus on advanced wireless networking and applications; lower-layer communication enablers; novel and innovative approaches to performance and efficiency analysis of ad-hoc and machine-type systems; employed game-theoretical formulations, Markov chain models, and advanced queuing theory; grapheme and other emerging material, photonics and optics; generation and processing of signals; and business aspects. The ruSMART papers deal with fully-customized applications and services. The NsCC Workshop papers capture the current state-of-the-art in the field of molecular and nanoscale communications such as information, communication and network theoretical analysis of molecular and nanonetwork, mobility in molecular and nanonetworks; novel and practical communication protocols; routing schemes and architectures; design/engineering/evaluation of molecular and nonoscale communication systems; potential applications and interconnections to the Internet (e.g. the Internet of Nano Things).
14th International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering, APEIE 2018 - Proceedings
Описывается созданный макет манипулятора с биоэлектрическим управлением. Манипулятор сделан в форме человеческой ладони, движение пальцев которой управляется через электромиосигналы оператора. В среде LabVIEW разработан виртуальный прибор, позволяющий с помощью дискретного вейвлет-преобразования осуществить анализ электромиосигналов оператора, определить моменты мышечной активности и сформировать по результатам анализа сигналы управления манипулятором.
The hydrogenation of diphenylacetylene (DPA) on palladium–silver catalysts with a single-atom structure was investigated. It has been shown experimentally that the reaction rate of alkene to alkane hydrogenation is substantially lower than the rate of DPA semi-hydrogenation. The kinetic barriers of all stages of hydrogenation were calculated by the DFT method.
Let G be a semisimple algebraic group whose decomposition into the product of simple components does not contain simple groups of type A, and P⊆G be a parabolic subgroup. Extending the results of Popov , we enumerate all triples (G, P, n) such that (a) there exists an open G-orbit on the multiple flag variety G/P × G/P × . . . × G/P (n factors), (b) the number of G-orbits on the multiple flag variety is finite.
I give the explicit formula for the (set-theoretical) system of Resultants of m+1 homogeneous polynomials in n+1 variables