Синтаксические архаизмы в русской разговорной речи
The article analyzes archaic syntactic constructions in colloquial Russian when a noun in genitive appears as the direct object of a transitive verb (such as dat’ noža, etc.). The connection of such genitival constructions with the semantics of partitivity is demonstrated. The author concentrates on the origin and semantics of the approving or encouraging exclamation molodca! in the Russian spoken language. According to the author, it is a former genitive form of the direct object related to a verb of utterance (verbum dicendi), i. e. a part of a construction similar to such phrases as skazat’ duraka or pustit’ petuxa.
This article aims to analyze everyday Hebrew dialogues, printed in the Manual of the Russian Language by Zalkind Epshteyn (1869). The status of the Hebrew language of the 19th century — whether it was a dead language or not so much — still remains disputable. Within this framework, the manual represents a curious source that contradicts common knowledge on Hebrew language usage before its revival. The analysis of the manual begins with a survey on everyday Hebrew lexis (part 2) and on the dialogue topics (part 3). Enlightenment pragmatics of the book limited the possible variety of topics. Therefore dialogues describing communicative situations of a lower status, such as trade, for example, are quoted from other sources. For a key feature of conversational speech I have chosen the system of address form, which is outlined in part 4. Honorific forms of address, detected in the manual, were compared with corresponding forms in other Hebrew sources of the period (part 5), with T-V distinction in Polish (part 6) and German (part 7) languages. The article ends with a brief overview of T-V distinction in the Hebrew language of the former and following periods.
The paper examines the notions 'animate' and 'inanimate' which are often used in Latin textbooks in order to explain prepositional or nonpreposotional use of the ablative case of the nouns in the function of 'Ablativus auctoris' or 'Ablativus instrumenti/causae/rei efficientis' with passive verbs. I conclude that the 'animacy' of nouns in Latin is less regularly expressed by grammatical means and less stable than in Russian and should be considered a semantic category rather than a formal grammatical category.
The paper examines the Russian construction Num + classifier + Ngen formed specifically with the numeral classifier shtuka (Num shtuk Ngen); this classifier occurs more frequently than other classifiers (chelovek, dush, edinic). I argue that the classifier shtuka undergoes a process of semantic bleaching: it occurs in the context of approximation (despite the literal meaning of the word shtuka ‘a single thing’) and animate nouns appear in this construction in colloquial speech. The paper focuses on the usage of the counting construction with the classifier shtuka with animate nouns in spoken Russian. Some restrictions on the usage of the numeral classifier shtuka with animate nouns are revealed. There is also substantial evidence in favor of a gradated semantic hierarchy of animate nouns.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.