Sąsiedzi i rywale. Psków i Novgoród Wielki w XVI-XVII wieku
The article deal with the relations of two big centres of Muscovite North-West, Novgorod the Great and Pskov in 16-17th cc. The important place of the article is social stratification of the cities' elite groups and verions of political regimes in these cities
The siege of Smolensk by king Sigismund in 1609-1011 transferred the center of power in Muscovite State directly to the king’s camp. In Autumn – Winter 1610-lots of representatives of different strata of Muscovite servicemen. That created an unprecedented impulse to great intensive contacts of Muscovites with Polish and Lithuanian cultures.
There was significant number of second row actors in the king’s camp who however had played noticeable role in Novgorod political life in early 17th century. There were Matvey Lvov, one of military officers in Novgorod in 1611-1614, Bogdan Dubrowskijwho brought to Novgorod the message in 1613 that Mikhail Romanov was elected, Murat Peresvetov, gentleman from Rostov deserted to Sweden camp in 1613 near Tikhvin; some Novgorodians of higher level – Andrew Palycin and Lev Plescheev.
«Polish trace» in early 17th century Novgorod is practically unstudied. Episodes of 1610-1612, inconvenient to Romanov’s ideology, did not preserve in most of the official Muscovite sources. Meanwhile one must consider the experience in Smolensk camp in the biographies of Novgorodians while studying the Novgorod society of early 17th century.
The paper discusses the origin of pragmatic writing in Early Rus’ and its relationship to the Church Slavonic tradition. The emergence of birchbark literacy in Novgorod at about 1030 is treated as a by-product of the spread of church education under the reign of Jaroslav the Wise. The intermingling of lay and ecclesiastic affairs in the life of Lyudin konec of Novgorod is shown to have produded the breeding ground for the proliferation of birchbark writing in this part of the city.
This book is the first publication, commented and indexed, of the “archive” of an English merchant who was living, running his business and studying Russian in Pskov during 1680s – a unique evidence of informal contacts between Russians and foreigners on the eve of the Petrine reforms.
The book includes different documents on the history of Novgorod in the age of Peter the Great taken from the Historical Archive of Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In 17th century one of the important function of Novgorod the Great was the borderline activity. It was the first big city of Muscovite State where everybody been came from the Sweden was interviewed and only then – let inside the state. All the roads coming from Sweden passed through Novgorod – from Finland (via Tesovo fortress) and since 1629 from Livonia (via Pskov). After the treaty in Altmark between Sweden and Polish-Lithuania military looking for a place to serve started to find their fortune in Muscovy. When in 1632 the War against Polish-Lithuania had been initiated in Moscow Russian government started the hiring of foreign officers and soldiers. Novgorod was the most important base of the hiring because the most of foreign military came through Sweden. Also the military equipment and arms came to Muscovy from Northern Germany and the Netherlands via the Baltic sea. In July 1633 the process of receiving armour was organized in Tesovo also.
The book is a volume of research articles on history and archaeology of Novgorod and Novgorod Land from Middle afes to the Early Modern
The article deal with the issue of relations between Swedish administration (General De la Gardie) and Novgorod society in 1611-1617. The plot of the study is the evolution of the regime – from alliance (1612-1612) to occupation (since late 1614 – 1617).