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Article

Arab-Levantine personality study: A psycholexical study in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank.

Journal of Personality. 2018. Vol. 86. P. 397-421.
Zeinoun P., Daouk-Öyry L., Choueiri L., van de Vijver F.

Objective: The debate of whether personality traits are universal or culture-specific has been 
informed by psycholexical (or lexical) studies conducted in tens of languages and cultures. We 
contribute to this debate through a series of studies in which we investigated personality 
descriptors in Modern Standard Arabic, the variety of Arabic that is presumably common to 
about 26 countries and native to more than 200 million people. Method: We identified an 
appropriate source of personality descriptors, extracted them, and systematically reduced them to 
167 personality traits that are common, are not redundant with each other, and are familiar and 
commonly understood in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and the West Bank (Palestinian Territories). 
Results: We then analyzed self- and peer-ratings (N = 806) and identified a 6-factor solution 
comprising Morality (I), Conscientiousness (II), Positive Emotionality (III), Dominance (IV), 
Agreeableness/Righteousness (V), and Emotional Stability (VI) without replicating an Openness 
factor. Conclusions: The factors were narrower or broader variants of factors found in the Big 
Five and HEXACO models. Conceptual and methodological consideration may have impacted 
the factor structure.