A Model for the Source of Quasi-Harmonic Bursts on the Crab Pulsar
A model for the source of microwave bursts from the Crab pulsar in the form of a current sheet
with a transversemagnetic field has been investigated. The emission generation mechanism is based on the
excitation of plasma waves at the double plasma resonance frequencies in a nonrelativistic nonequilibrium
plasma followed by their scattering into electromagnetic waves that escape from the current sheet into the
neutron star magnetosphere. The basic parameters of the source explaining the observed characteristics of
quasi-harmonic bursts in the interpulses of radio emission from this pulsar have been established.
This work is devoted to the study of the generation of the equatorial noise—electromagnetic radiation below the LHR frequency observed near the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere at distances of ~4RE. According to accepted views, the generation of the equatorial noise is related to the instability of ring current protons. In this work, a logarithmic distribution of energetic protons over the magnetic moment with an empty loss cone is proposed, and arguments for the formation of such a distribution are presented. The main result of the work is the calculation and analysis of the instability increment of waves forming the equatorial noise. The increment obtained in this work significantly differs from that encountered in the literature.
In this paper, we discuss some question related to the nature and manifestation of the equatorial electrojet. We study the equatorial electrojet as nonlinear antenna for generating ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic signals during periodic heating of the ionosphere by the short-wave heating-facility radiation. It is shown that for modulation at the frequency corresponding to the ULF band the generation of electromagnetic signals can be the considerable intensified. This effect is especially important for day-time magnetosphere where in same frequency band there are eigen-frequencies of plasma magnetospheric maser in the electron radiation belts. This can lead to modification of VLF emissions in the subauroral magnetosphere.
Equatorial noise in the frequency range below the lower hybrid resonance frequency, whose structure is shaped by high proton cyclotron harmonics, has been observed by the Cluster spacecraft. We develop a model of this wave phenomenon which assumes (as, in general, has been suggested long ago) that the observed spectrum is excited due to loss cone instability of energetic ions in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. The wavefield is represented as a sum of constant frequency wave packets which cross a number of cyclotron resonances while propagating in a highly oblique mode along quite specific trajectories. The growth (damping) rate of these wave packets varies both in sign and magnitude along the raypath, making the wave net amplification, but not the growth rate, the main characteristic of the wave generation process. The growth rates and the wave amplitudes along the ray paths, determined by the equations of geometrical optics, have been calculated for a 3-D set of wave packets with various frequencies, initial L shells, and initial wave normal angles at the equator. It is shown that the dynamical spectrum resulting from the proposed model qualitatively matches observations.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.