Валидизация опросника "Круговая структура личностных метачерт" на российской выборке
The article presents the results of the validation of the Circumplex of personality metatraits questionnaire on the Russian sample (Strus, Cieciuch, Rowiński, 2014, Strus, Cieciuch, 2017). The new concept of the personality metatraits, which is the development of Big Five, is briefly described in the article.
According to the model, metatraits can be described within a circumplex that is organized by 2 orthogonal dimensions: "Alpha" and "Beta". Also, authors of this model, introduced to the model 2 other metatraits: "Gamma" and "Delta". The main advantage of the CPM model is that it provides foundations for wide-ranging theoretical and methodological integration.
The description of the validated questionnaire, the sample on which the validation was conducted and other techniques that were additionally used to assess the empirical validity of the questionnaire is provided. During the validation of the questionnaire, direct and reverse translations of the questionnaire items were made, cognitive interviews were conducted, and, in order to approbate, 1191 respondents were interviewed. When processing the data obtained in this sample, the reliability-consistency of the eight scales of the questionnaire was evaluated, multidimensional scaling was performed to confirm the circumplex structure and the order of the mutual arrangement of the personality metatraits. To assess empirical validity, additional techniques were used that allow us to evaluate a number of other psychological constructs which can be hypothetically related to certain personality metatraits. As a result, we managed to get a questionnaire that meets the necessary requirements for validity and reliability. The questionnaire and the keys to it are attached to this article.
Several questionnaires exist for brief estimation of the Big Five personality factors. The majority of the short forms of the Big Five instruments aim to estimate the Big Five factors but not the facets within each factor. Assessing facets can be beneficial because facets may explain external behavior better than factors do. This paper presents a short form of the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) designed to assess both factors and facets, validated on a sample of Russian adolescents (14-18 years old). We created a short version (BFQ – Russian Brief; BFQ-RB), using data from a sample of 1128 adolescents (14-18 years) and then confirmed the factor structure on another subsample of 1087 adolescents. The psychometric properties of the newly created instrument – the BFQ-RB (Russian Brief) – were evaluated via item-level confirmatory factor analysis. We estimated three main models. In the first model, the selected items represented the Big Five factors. In the second model, the selected items represented ten correlated latent factors (facets). The third model was the second-order factor model fitted the data well, suggesting that the BFQ-RB enabled the estimation of both facets and factors. Our final instrument consists of 43 items, with each facet represented by 3-4 items and each second-order factor consisting of two facets, including the Lie scale.
The main objective of the study is the search of relationships between mood, personality traits and emotional intelligence (EI). The additional goal is acquisition of the new psychometric data on the used questionnaires. To measure mood, the Russian adaptation of the questionnaire PANAS was used, which assesses mood by the scales of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Personality traits were measured with the help of the Big 5 questionnaire, emotional intelligence was measured with the help of the questionnaire EmIn. Questionnaires were used on a sample of 71 subjects aged 18–49 years. Data was received about the reliability of the scales of all the used questionnaires, which in whole was satisfactory – Chronbach’s of all the scales except one lie in the range from .78 to .89. Positive correlations of some scales of the EmIn questionnaire (general EI, interpersonal EI, management of emotions) were found with the scale PA and negative correlations were found with the scale NA. Scales of interpersonal EI and understanding of emotions had only positive correlations with the scale PA. Negative correlation of neuroticism with the scale PA and positive correlation with the scale NA were found. Extraversion was positively correlated with the scale PA and had no correlations with the scale NA. In whole the acquired results correspond to the results of the similar studies, conducted in other countries. The necessity to move from one-time measurements to data collection about participants’ mood for a long period of time (the so-called experience sampling) is validated. It will allow acquiring more reliable information about emotional background, characteristic for this or that participant, and analyzing relationships between personality traits and emotional intelligence, from the one side, and dynamic characteristics of emotional states, from the other side.
Meta-analytic research in psychology of academic performance proved that Big Five Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience predict scholastic achievements of university students (O’Connor, Paunonen, 2007; Poropat, 2009). But we claim that psychological predictiors of academic success depend on educational environment and can be culture-related. We examined 176 2nd and 3rd year economy and computer science university students in Russia with the Big Five – Ipsative version test (Shmelyov, 2010) and discovered that GPA and USE (United State Examination in Russia) scores are significantly correlated with Agreeableness (r = 0.15; p < 0.01 for GPA and r = 0.22 p < 0.01 for USE math) and Neuroticism (r = 0.2, p < 0.01 for GPA and r = -0,17; p < 0,01 for USE math). We suppose that the difference between our result and results provided by the meta-analyses mentioned above can be explained by the differences in educational environment in Russia and other countries. We assume that big number of classes and relatively small amount of individual and analytical assignments create the environment where Agreeableness and Neuroticism are important for the academic success.
The article describes the results of the development of the Russian version of the brief Big Five questionnaire (TIPI; n = 415) that measures Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness. We confirmed the factor structure of TIPI using confirmatory factor analysis, established its satisfactory psychometric properties, and validated the questionnaire against other questionnaires, including Khromov’s Big Five Questionnaire, Personality Factors of Decision Making, New Tolerance / Intolerance for Uncertainty Questionnaire, Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, and the Dark Dozen questionnaire. The results indicated that 4 out of 5 traits measured by TIPI are related to tolerance for uncertainty in ways convergent with those obtained for the original English-speaking sample. We also report the differential relationships between Big Five traits measured with TIPI, on one hand, and personality traits affecting self-regulation. We also established a set of relationships between TIPI and the Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) that suggested that both Dark Dozen and TIPI can be used as complimentary in measuring personality traits. All Big Five traits with the exception of Agreeableness as measured by TIPI were positively related to the adaptive regulation of uncertainty acceptance, measured as Vigilance using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.