Atomistic mechanism of the constitutive activation of PDGFRA via its transmembrane domain
Single-point mutations in the transmembrane (TM) region of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can lead to abnormal ligand-independent activation. We use a combination of computational modeling, NMR spectroscopy and cell experiments to analyze in detail the mechanism of how TM domains contribute to the activation of wild-type (WT) PDGFRA and its oncogenic V536E mutant. Using a computational framework, we scan all positions in PDGFRA TM helix for identification of potential functional mutations for the WT and the mutant and reveal the relationship between the receptor activity and TM dimerization via different interfaces. This strategy also allows us design a novel activating mutation in the WT (I537D) and a compensatory mutation in the V536E background eliminating its constitutive activity (S541G). We show both computationally and experimentally that single-point mutations in the TM region reshape the TM dimer ensemble and delineate the structural and dynamic determinants of spontaneous activation of PDGFRA via its TM domain. Our atomistic picture of the coupling between TM dimerization and PDGFRA activation corroborates the data obtained for other RTKs and provides a foundation for developing novel modulators of the pathological activity of PDGFRA.
The cell membrane is "stuffed" with proteins, whose transmembrane (TM) helical domains spontaneously associate to form functionally active complexes. For a number of membrane receptors, a modulation of TM domains' oligomerization has been shown to contribute to the development of severe pathological states, thus calling for detailed studies of the atomistic aspects of the process. Despite considerable progress achieved so far, several crucial questions still remain: How do the helices recognize each other in the membrane? What is the driving force of their association? Here, we assess the dimerization free energy of TM helices along with a careful consideration of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of protein and lipids using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in the hydrated lipid bilayer for three different model systems - TM fragments of glycophorin A, polyalanine and polyleucine peptides. We observe that the membrane driven association of TM helices exhibits a prominent entropic character, which depends on the peptide sequence. Thus, a single TM peptide of a given composition induces strong and characteristic perturbations in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer, which may facilitate the initial "communication" between TM helices even at the distances of 20-30 Å. Upon tight helix-helix association, the immobilized lipids accommodate near the peripheral surfaces of the dimer, thus disturbing the packing of the surrounding. The dimerization free energy of the modeled peptides corresponds to the strength of their interactions with lipids inside the membrane being the lowest for glycophorin A and similarly higher for both homopolymers. We propose that the ability to accommodate lipid tails determines the dimerization strength of TM peptides and that the lipid matrix directly governs their association. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
The atomic-scale diffusion of water in the presence of several lipid bilayers mimicking biomembranes is characterized via unconstrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Although the overall water dynamics corresponds well to literature data – namely, the efficient braking near polar head groups of lipids - a number of interesting and biologically relevant details observed in this work have not been sufficiently discussed so far. For instance, the fact that waters “sense” the membrane unexpectedly early – before water density begins to decrease. In this “transitional zone” the velocity distributions of water and their H-bonding patterns deviate from those in the bulk solution. The boundaries of this zone are well preserved even despite the local (<1 nm size) perturbation of the lipid bilayer, thus indicating a decoupling of the surface and bulk dynamics of water. This is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data. Near the membrane surface, water movement becomes anisotropic – solvent molecules preferentially move outward the bilayer. Deep in the membrane interior, the velocities can even exceed those in the bulk solvent and undergo large-scale fluctuations. The analysis of MD trajectories of individual waters in the middle part of the acyl chain region of lipids reveals a number of interesting rare phenomena, such as the fast (c.a. 50 ps) breakthrough across the membrane or long-time (up to 750 ps) “roaming” between lipid leaflets. The analysis of these events was accomplished to delineate the mechanisms of spontaneous water permeation inside the hydrophobic membrane core. It was shown that such nontrivial dynamics of water in an “alien” environment is driven by the dynamic heterogeneities of the local bilayer structure and the formation of transient atomic-scale “defects” in it. The picture observed in lipid bilayers is drastically different from that in a primitive membrane mimic – a hydrated cyclohexane slab. The possible biological impact of such phenomena in equilibrated lipid bilayers is discussed.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family is an important class of receptor tyrosine kinases, mediating a variety of cellular responses in normal biological processes and in pathological states of multicellular organisms. Different modes of dimerization of the human EGFR transmembrane domain (TMD) in different membrane mimetics recently prompted us to propose a novel signal transduction mechanism based on protein-lipid interaction. However, the experimental evidence for it was originally obtained with slightly different TMD fragments used in the two different mimetics, compromising the validity of the comparison. To eliminate ambiguity, we determined the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the bicelle-incorporated dimer of the EGFR TMD fragment identical to the one previously used in micelles. The NMR results augmented by molecular dynamics simulations confirm the mutual influence of the TMD and lipid environment, as is required for the proposed lipid-mediated activation mechanism. They also reveal the possible functional relevance of a subtle interplay between the concurrent processes in the lipid and protein during signal transduction.
Transmembrane domains of the most membrane proteins consist of single α-helices or their bundles. They take part in the functioning of receptors and ion channels and provide spatial structure formation. Thus, helix-helix interactions in lipid environment are involved in crucial processes of cell functioning. The concept of dimerization motifs representing protein-protein interactions as direct residue contacts is now replaced with the model of active membrane medium affecting embedded proteins. In the present work computer molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the behavior of the transmembrane segment of glycophorin A and two artificial polypeptides (based on polyalanine and polyleucine) in hydrated lipid bilayers. It was demonstrated that both monomers and dimers present lipid interaction sites on the surface of helical transmembrane segments. In the case of glycophorin A monomer, the most prominent interaction site corresponds to the dimerization interface. The redistribution of bound lipid molecules during dimer formation stabilizes the dimeric state with the entropy contribution into the association free energy.
Antibiotics resistance is a major threat to global health, so development of novel classes of antibiotics is urgently needed. Lantibiotics are natural compounds that effectively control bacterial populations, thus study of the molecular mechanisms of recognition of their targets in bacterial membrane may drive creation of novel antibiotic molecules. Many of them target lipid II - unique molecule of bacterial membranes that limits synthesis of cell wall. The core of recognition pattern is a pyrophosphate group, which can represent a pharmaceutical target. Here we present the realistic model of lipid II in native environment and establish a pharmacophore of pyrophosphate recognition by nisin molecule.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.
A form for an unbiased estimate of the coefficient of determination of a linear regression model is obtained. It is calculated by using a sample from a multivariate normal distribution. This estimate is proposed as an alternative criterion for a choice of regression factors.