Secondary Text: Author’s Conception and Translator’s Individuality
Translation, or interpretive and language code conversion of the text, is considered as an independent complex type of speech activity which consists of such stages as perception, understanding and interpretation of the foreign-language text and actual translation, that is selection of language means for the expression of the interpretive version of the original. Considerable attention is paid nowadays to the translations of works of such literary genre as literary fairy tale. Fairy tale is a type of prosaic folklore, which is met in the folklore of various peoples. Not only have literary fairy tales grown on the basis of folklore, but they also inherited its genre characteristics, developing and transforming them. Translation as an interpretive conversion of the text is considered within the concept “secondary text”. The conspicuous feature of secondary texts is the double reference of the word: to its own culture referent and to a foreign culture referent. The secondary text cannot be completely understood and appreciated without its reference to “the second plane”. Subjected to analysis are the problems of preserving original pragmatics in secondary texts. The challenge of national fairy tales translation lies in the discrepancy of cultural concepts of the two nations and in considerable distinctions between the characters of Russian and British national fairy tales. The traditions of Russian national culture and the consistency of grammatical gender expression in the Russian language lead to gender shifts in the translation of English literary fairy tales.