Оценка экспоненты вероятности ошибки для регулярных, основанных на графах МПП-кодов с конечной длиной
This paper deals with the error exponent of the regular graph-based binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes under the maximum likelihood (ML) decoding algorithm in the binary symmetric channel (BSC). Unlike other papers where error exponents are considered for the case when the length of LDPC codes tends to infinity (asymptotic analysis) we considered the finite length case (finite length analysis). In this paper we describe the method of deriving the lower bound on the error exponent for regular graph- based LDPC code with finite length under ML decoding and analyze the dependency of the error exponent on various LDPC code parameters. The numerical results, obtained for the considered lower bound, are represented and analyzed at the end of the paper.
Non-orthogonal multiple access schemes are of great interest for next generation wireless systems, as such schemes allow to reduce the total number of resources (frequencies or time slots) in comparison to orthogonal transmission (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA). In this paper we consider an iterative LDPC-based joint decoding scheme suggested in . We investigate the most difficult and important problem where all the users have the same power constraint and the same rate. For the case of 2 users we use a known scheme and analyze it by means of simulations. We found the optimal relation between the number of inner and outer iterations. We further extend the scheme for the case of any number of users and investigated the cases of 3 and 4 users by means of simulations. Finally, we showed, that considered non-orthogonal transmission scheme is more efficient (for 2 and 3 users), than orthogonal transmission.
Two ensembles of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes with low-complexity decoding algorithms are considered. The first ensemble consists of generalized LDPC codes, and the second consists of concatenated codes with an outer LDPC code. Error exponent lower bounds for these ensembles under the corresponding low-complexity decoding algorithms are compared. A modification of the decoding algorithm of a generalized LDPC code with a special construction is proposed. The error exponent lower bound for the modified decoding algorithm is obtained. Finally, numerical results for the considered error exponent lower bounds are presented and analyzed.
A modification of the decoding q-ary Sum Product Algorithm (q-SPA) was proposed for the nonbinary codes with small check density based on the permutation matrices. The algorithm described has a vector realization and operates over the vectors defined on the field GF(q), rather than over individual symbols. Under certain code parameters, this approach enables significant speedup of modeling.
Methods for constructing a mapping of the elements of a multiplicative group of a Galois field onto a symmetric group of permutation matrices are proposed. A technique minimizing the order of the symmetric group is suggested. The results are used for constructing an ensemble of low-density parity-check codes. The obtained code constructions are tested on an iterative belief propagation (sum-product) decoding algorithm on transmission of a code word through a binary channel with an additive Gaussian white noise.
In this paper we present a new ensemble of Low- Density Parity-Check codes (LDPC Codes) based on modular Golomb rulers and permutation matrices. We suggest a designing rule for these codes that allows obtaining a nested family of LDPC codes with wide range of rates from one matrix of lowest rate code. Moreover, the regular way that we apply to construct our codes allows describing parity-check matrices with minimal number of parameters. The simulation results in the case of transmission via AWGN channel with QAM-4 modulation are presented.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.