К вопросу об отражении перфекта на -ши в памятниках северо-западного региона
It is well known that in modern Northwestern Russian dialects there is a grammatical category of -shi perfect which is used to express result. However, there is no common opinion about the time of its origin and its reflection in Old Russian manuscripts. In Novgorod I Chronicle and in Pskov I and III Chronicles, we have found constructions, which consist of the verb to be and the past participle and where the result semantics is obvious. Consequently, both in form and in meaning the use of these constructions correspond to what the dialect material shows. Apparently, they were base for the subsequent development of modern Northwestern perfect. The extremely small number of examples in texts indicates that these constructions originated in the sphere of syntax and only later were incorporated into morphology.
The article analyzes l-forms without an auxiliary with a meaning of a pre-past action. Such l-participles are usually regarded as perfect forms used in pluperfect contexts. However, it will be shown that apparently we deal with the rise of a specialized for expressing the grammatical meaning of result, for which the correlation with time (present or past) was irrelevant. This interpretation is confirmed with the material of Modern Russian dialects with -shi / -vshi perfect and pluperfect, where the -shi / -vshi form used without the auxiliary in the past tense can mean the result pertaining not only to the present, but also to the past.
The paper describes the group of perfective past tenses in Aghul (Lezgic, East Caucasian), focusing on the expression of the perfect meaning. There are four verbal forms which can express the meaning of the perfect ‘family’; at the same time, it is not obvious whether Aghul can be qualified as a language with a dedicated perfect form. All the four forms in question are periphrastic in origin, with the perfective converb or participle of the main verb and the postpositional auxiliary in the present tense. The Aorist is a typical perfective past used in narratives, although it is employed in the immediate (‘hot news’) contexts as well. The “participial” Aorist has an experiential or existential meaning, which is commonly associated with perfects. The Resultative is a polyfunctional form which expresses both perfect and resultative meanings, as well as indirect evidentiality in the past (in the latter function, it is a frequent tense used in ‘second-hand’ narratives). Finally, the “participial” Resultative has a narrower perfect meaning and introduces a currently relevant situation as already “known”, the function of the corresponding clause being explanatory or confirmatory. Thus, Aghul can be said to possess two perfect-like forms, one with a wide distribution, and another with a more narrow distribution than expected of a ‘classical’ current-relevance perfect.
Each of the four forms has a counterpart with the ‘pluperfect’ structure, including the perfective converb or participle and the auxiliary in the past. These forms express the meanings that are typical of pluperfects cross-linguistically, including the resultant state in the past, the anteriority in the past, ‘discontinuous’ past etc.
The paper considers the two main synthetic past tenses in Udi and argues that they should be identified as the aorist (‘perfective past’) and the perfect (‘past with present relevance’) respectively. While the former is the main means of foregounding in discourse, the latter has the prototypical ‘current relevance’ meaning, and is also used with experiential and resultative functions. The perfect is also the source for the pluperfect, derived by means of the “retrospective shift” enclitic. The hypothesis put forward in the paper deals with the putative grammaticalization paths of the two forms: most probably, the aorist was based on the perfective converb, and the perfect on the construction with the perfective participle. The evidence for such a development is both typological / comparative (especially stemming from the data of genetically related languages) and language-specific. In particular, it is the perfect in Udi that has a special negative construction involving a perfective participle and a postpositional negation, which may point at the participle as a diachronic source of this particular form.
The paper proposes a diachronic explanation of the syntax of resultatives in Moksha Mordvin
The paper describes Russian constructions with the markers of immediate past tol’ko, tol’ko-tol’ko, and tol’ko čto, such as On tol’ko / tol’ko-tol’ko / tol’ko čto prišel ‘He has just come’, and their relations with the resultative semantics. The main question posed in the article is whether the use of the three markers under analysis presupposes that the result of the situation persists at the moment of speech. I show that the meaning of immediate past does not necessarily correlate with the resultative meaning. The meaning of some immediate past constructions can contain the resultative component, while others lack it. In Russian, the markers tol’ko and tol’ko-tol’ko are tightly connected with the resultative meaning, while the marker tol’ko čto does not require either the presence or the absence of the result. The connection of tol’ko and tol’kotol’ko with resultative contexts follows from their semantics and discourse properties, which are also addressed in the paper.
L-forms used without auxiliary in non perfect meaning are usually regarded as perfect forms which have lost their perfect meaning. However, as the analysis of the oldest Old Russian chronicles has shown, examples with such l-forms in the narrative can be divided into several types of contexts where the usage of l-forms turns out to be quit predictable if we assume that they could function as «usual» past participles. This supposition can be confirmed both by Russian dialectical data and by material of other Slavonic languages.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.