In the article, properties of the author and the addressee in the genre of letter to the newspaper in the Soviet Union and in the emigration society are considered. The description of the figure of the author is based on two oppositions: 1) the number of authors: individual vs. collective author and 2) the level of privacy: private vs. social person. The analysis of the ways of marking the author in the texts of letters makes it evident that in the Soviet newspapers, the ‘social’ domain prevails over the ‘personal’ one, while in the letters to the emigrant newspapers, these two domains are equally represented. As the data show, the most important for the analysis of the addressee is to distinguish the following three types of the addressee: the mass addressee, the formal addressee, and the principal one. The mass addressee includes the whole readership of the newspaper. The formal one is the editor-in-chief of the newspaper, who the author of the letter addresses just to observe the courtesy norms. By the principal addressee, I mean the person or the group of people whose attention or reaction is really important for the author and who are mentioned in the body of letter. Throughout the article I show in which manner these three types of the addressee interact with each other and which language mechanisms serve to introduce them, the particular attention being given to the differences between the letters to the Soviet and to the emigrate newspapers. One of the important conclusions I draw in the end of the article is that the presence of the mass addressee in letters to newspapers leads to substantial shifts in communicative purposes of specific types of letters.
The article analyzes poetological motifs and images that compile an independent metapoetic plot in Goethe’s “West-Eastern Divan”. From the point of view of the author of this article, the unity of the book is determined by means of the subject motif of the "oral", "stated" word. This Word becomes the cornerstone of both the natural "living» form (Gestalt) and the poetic form. Thus on the border of different cultures Goethe creates his art conception which eliminates the distinction between an eastern poetic word constructed on hints and allusions escaping its exact definition and western plastic form of a symbol.
In this article we will examine the influence of Alexander Herzen, perhaps the most famous Russian émigré of the 19th century, on the worldview of Vladislav Khodasevich and on the poetics of the latter's poetry written in emigration. In this study it will be shown that Herzen's relationship to the Europe of his day and its bourgeois values and political programs was a model for Khodasevich and influenced some of the poems in European Night. The title of this collection of poems, like many features of its poetics (the position of the observer, the description of the "deformity" of European culture, political themes that occasionally appear) illustrate Khodasevich's indebtedness to the works of Herzen. In this article we will also investigate Khodasevich's social and political views and discuss the question of the pragmatics of his poems written in emigration.
Review of the book by Elena A. Grishina "Russian gestures from a linguistic perspective". Moscow, 2017. 744 p.
The paper considers the idioms of craziness and madness. It is demonstrated that a metaphor, which internally in form sa phraseological unit, also affects its actual meaning by motivating semantics. At the same time, a model of inner form – that is, a combination of meaningful components common for several metaphors – becomes an instrument for putting the actual meaning in code. Techniques of coding are language-specific. The paper focuses upon major types of inner-form models of the idioms of madness. The paper argues that, proceeding from the knowledge of the inner form, one can predict the resulting actual meaning only partially.
This paper focuses on a passage about the so-called virtues of the mass from a verse treatise The Interpretation and Virtues of the Mass written by a 15th-century English poet John Lydgate. Lydgate’s text is analyzed in the light of other surviving English witnesses on the same subject matter composed from the end of the 14th to the beginning of the 16th centuries; on the other hand, it is compared with its Latin source. The research project examines what verb forms are used in the lists describing the virtues of the mass, what kind of logical-grammatical perspective the virtues are, therefore, placed in, and how the historical context might have played a role in the tradition of these lists. Lydgate’s rather short passage, in fact, turns out to have been grounded in the conflict of ideas and the confrontation of religious positions: numerous Middle English lists dedicated to the virtues of the mass, which started appearing almost independently of each other from the end of the 14th century, were probably a reaction to Lollard criticism, and Lydgate answered the challenge. Yet, although the authors of other texts on the virtues of the mass tended to use forms with the verb ‘shall’, Lydgate, as a scholar, followed his Latin source, which had been created before the appearance of the Lollard heresy, and transferred its grammar to his English text.
It is well known that in modern Northwestern Russian dialects there is a grammatical category of -shi perfect which is used to express result. However, there is no common opinion about the time of its origin and its reflection in Old Russian manuscripts. In Novgorod I Chronicle and in Pskov I and III Chronicles, we have found constructions, which consist of the verb to be and the past participle and where the result semantics is obvious. Consequently, both in form and in meaning the use of these constructions correspond to what the dialect material shows. Apparently, they were base for the subsequent development of modern Northwestern perfect. The extremely small number of examples in texts indicates that these constructions originated in the sphere of syntax and only later were incorporated into morphology.
The aim of this research is to classify traditional Thai poetic meters in terms of the modern approaches to verse and look for their possible typological counterparts in other versification systems. The methods of the research include analyzing of a corpus of Thai classical poems and some previous studies about different Thai meters. This topic is worthy of note, because, though the 700-year-old Thai poetic tradition has a very rich literature heritage, Thai poetic meters have never been described in terms of modern verse theories and compared to other poetic traditions. Our study seems to clear new ground in this respect. Our study shows that there are three main Thai meters: klon, chan and khlong. Klon can easily be classified as a syllabic and chan as a syllabo- metrical meter. The most difficult for classification is khlong. In this meter each line should contain a certain number (7 or 9) of syllables and at the same time certain syllables should be marked by one of diacritical symbols mai tho and mai ek. These symbols are used for tone marking, but in modern Thai none of them is a symbol of a certain tone: the tone depends on both the diacritical symbol and a class of the consonant (all Thai consonant letters belong to one of 3 classes). In view of this, we cannot identify khlong as a determined sequence of tones, but should call it a determined sequence of graphemes. Accordingly, the best decision would be to introduce a special term “syllabo-graphic meter” for classifying khlong. Such type of meter does not have any analogues in other poetic traditions, which makes Thai poetry unique.
The paper considers metaphoric extensions of the West-Circassian (Adyghe) verbs of falling ‑fe- ‘fall’, wəḳʷerejə- ‘topple’, -zə- ‘detach’, zexeteqʷe- / zexezə- / zexefe- / zexewe- ‘crumple’ in typological perspective. The present analysis of metaphoric meanings is drawn on the frame-based approach to lexical typology created by the Moscow lexical typology group (MLexT): all semantic shifts that the given verbs undergo are considered to be motivated by their literal, physical meanings. Metaphoric uses under discussion have been inventoried through corpus data and supplemented by the survey among native speakers.
The research demonstrates that the verb wəḳʷerejə- ‘topple’ has no metaphoric derivations, while the rest of the West-Circassian verbs of falling are each characterized by a specific set of semantic shifts. The verb ‑fe-, which originally refers to falling from a height with the focus on the goal of movement, when used metaphorically, maintains this orientation and serves to cover the situations with the idea of an unexpected coincidence, overlapping of some objects, situations or parameters. The verb -zə-, focused on the source point of the movement, in its direct meaning is normally applied to situations of falling from a height caused by detachment. Metaphors, derived from it, denote the loss of a contact or of some properties. The semantic shifts of the verbs zexeteqʷe- / zexezə- / zexefe- / zexewe, describing crumpling in their direct use, entail the meaning of the destruction of abstract constructions or that of a person’s functionality loss.
The number and the diversity of metaphors of falling attested in West-Circassian, a minor language with a young written tradition, is quite unexpected. Still, the majority of them represent specific realizations of more general semantic patterns attested in other languages and thus additionally confirm the recurrence of these patterns across languages.
The paper considers a specific element of syllabic versification on the Bashkir text data. We examine the ordered alternations of lines of different lengths. Such verse forms exist in Turkic verse along with the usual isosyllabic poems. The status of such forms is ambiguous; they can be viewed both as a stanza and as a special meter. A similarly difficult case for traditional verse studies is elegiac distich. Based on the corpus of the texts of 103 Bashkir poets, we analyzed the correlation of isosyllabic and heterosyllabic verse forms. The most common among the latter are “Uzun-kyuy” and “Kyska-kyuy”, forms of folk origin, presented in the regular alternation of 10 and 9 syllables, as well as 8 and 7 syllables in line. “Kyska-kyuy” has analogies in other Turkic traditions, in Tuva, Khakass, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz verse. “Uzunkyuy” seems to be specific to the Volga-Kypchak region. The longer first line is a typological parallel to Russian verse, in which the first line in a stanza is usually longer than the last. The results of the calculations showed that the rhythm of the 8-syllables in the isosyllabic texts and in the Kyska-kyuy is seriously different. In the isosyllabic texts, a caesura is obligatory after the 4th syllable, but in Kyska-kyuy it usually does not exist.
Greek adverbs are often claimed to have almost completely lost the ability to govern the genitive case, which is replaced by prepositional phrases with the accusative. Nevertheless, the corpus study presented in the article demonstrates that some low-frequent spatial adverbs δεξιά/αριστερά ‘on the right/left’ and βόρεια/νότια/ανατολικά/δυτικά ‘in the north/south/east/west’ retain the ability to govern genitive along with prepositional phrases. Moreover, cardinal directions prefer this archaic model to all the other options. Cross-linguistically, lexical items traditionally classified as adverbs and/or adpositions often demonstrate mixed syntactic behavior, since adverbs that were relatively recently derived from nouns, can retain their initial nominal internal syntax. The diachronic development of the Greek adverbs ‘right/left’ and cardinal direction terms also have well traced nominal sources. In the present study I suggest that the mixed category analysis can be applied to some Modern Greek adverbs.
The article focuses on the choice of verbal stem (perfective vs. imperfective) for prefixation. Although some tendencies have been described in existing work (for instance, the fact that lexical prefixes very often choose the perfective stem, while this is not true for supralexical prefixes), I show that many cases of stem choice cannot be explained by the opposition of lexical vs. supralexical prefixes. For instance, the verb prygat’ / prygnut’ ‘jump’ behaves differently with different lexical prefixes: with s-, only the perfective stem is possible (*sprygat’ / sprygnut’ ‘jump down from’), while with do-, either stem can be chosen (doprygat’ / doprygnut’ ‘reach something jumping’). In some pairs of verbs with similar meaning and similar stem relation, two lexemes behave not identically (cf. rastolkát’ ‘push to different directions’ vs. *razdvígat’ ‘move in different directions’). Many lexical prohibitions on one or another stem do not have an obvious explanation (here belongs the verb brosit’ / brosat’ ‘throw’, which can combine with the prefix vy- only in the perfective form, cf. výbrosit’ ‘throw out’ vs. *výbrosat’ ‘throw out’). I conclude that several parameters are responsible for the choice of the stem, such as 1) formal correlation of the basic verb stems; 2) meaning of the prefix; 3) meaning of the base and derived verbs.
In this paper are studied the mechanisms of the verse reform in Russian poetry of the eighteenth century and also the genesis of the Russian and continentalI syllabotonicism. The typology of Dutch, German and Russian syllabo-tonicism in the early stages is observed.